Category Archives: architectural finishes

Architectural finishes in a holistic sense can refer to a variety of textures, , colours and materials and refers to hard and soft permanently fixed finishes such as plaster or render and other surface coatings, such as paint. Architectural finishes can be in form of  Vitrified tiles for flooring, ceramic tiles, False ceiling, textured paints, dry walls, facades, aluminium doors and windows, UPVC doors and windows, Epoxy painting, plastic emulsion, Plaster of Paries, natural stones like marble, granite etc

Types of doors – Top 7 door types explained

Types of doors commonly used in residential, commercial, and industrial construction depend on the application area, durability required, the purpose of the door, etc.

What is a door?

A door is a movable barrier or mechanism for opening and closing an entranceway or a building/room. The purpose of the door in this urban environment is security and privacy. Apart from security, safety, and privacy, an aspect of art, beauty, and elegance is associated with it. The entrance door acts as a warm welcome to the areas inside.

This article is about the types of doors popularly used in civil construction.

  1. Classification of doors in Civil Engineering
    1. Types of doors in civil engineering– location based
      1. Exterior door
      2. Interior door
    2. Types of Doors – Based on Materials
      1. Wooden Door/Timber Door
        1. Demerits of wooden doors
      2. Glass Doors
      3. Metal Doors
      4. Types of Doors – Flush Doors
      5. PVC Doors
      6. Types of Doors – UPVC Doors
      7. Types of Door – Aluminium doors
  2. Conclusion

Classification of doors in Civil Engineering

Doors come in a number of types. The selection of a door type, on the other hand, is determined by the location, purpose, aesthetic needs, material availability, security, and privacy. Doors types are typically classified as follows.

  • Location based
  • Based on material
  • Based on operation mechanism

Types of doors in civil engineering– location based

The doors types are classified as follows

  • Exterior Doors
  • Interior Doors

Exterior door

An outside door is one that allows entry to a building/house. An outside door’s main function is to safeguard the building as well as the security and privacy of the occupants of the building. While selecting an exterior door, style, colours, finishes, and aesthetic looks to match the architectural theme must be considered.

Interior door

Interior doors provide access to interior spaces like bed, kitchen, special functional rooms, toilets, etc. However, choice of material and type depends on the nature of privacy, security, and purpose of the room. Interior doors used to be lighter than exterior doors.

Types of Doors – Based on Materials

The door choice is confirmed based on the material to be used. For that, we should have a better idea of the readily available, durable, and aesthetically matching materials. Following are the popular choices of doors based on materials used in construction nowadays.

  • Wooden Doors
  • Glass Door
  • Metal Door
  • Flush Door
  • PVC door
  • Aluminium Door
  • UPVC door

Wooden Door/Timber Door

Wooden doors types are the most common and premium choice for both external and internal doors. They are the preferred choice due to their classy and elegant looks, high durability, and ability to match any architecture theme. Moreover, they are aesthetically pleasing and are widely available on a reasonable budget. Wooden doors can be custom-made for any functional requirements and design. They are the oldest material used and never lose their sheen even after long years.

wooden door
wooden door
  • Easily available
  • Easy working
  • Best material for front doors due to its high durability.
  • Used for any functional requirement.
  • Wooden doors are mostly polished rather than painted for exposing the natural grain looks.
  • Simple and easy installation.
  • Carving works are easily done on wooden doors.
  • Wooden doors are soundproof, got high thermal insulation capabilities and are strong.
Demerits of wooden doors

Even though wooden doors are superior materials they have their demerits also. However, needs periodic maintenance to retain the sheen and looks.

  • Needs periodic maintenance to retain the sheen and looks.
  • Wooden doors on long exposure to moisture may deteriorate.
  • Prone to termite attacks.
  • May sags

Glass Doors

Glass doors are for areas where the availability of natural light and open feeling is the main functional requirement. They are mainly used in areas where privacy is not a prime factor-like back yard, balcony doors, cabin doors, etc.

Glass doors are elegant and give an enhanced look to the house. However, the main problem with glass doors is the safety and privacy factor and the possibility of glass breaking. The glass breaking problem is managed by using small glass pieces for front doors. The glass should be safety glass or toughened glass.

Metal Doors

Steel is one of the preferred and favorite alternatives to wood for both external and internal doors. Mild steel or Galvanized steel is used for the manufacturing of doors. These doors are manufactured in solid and hollow types and are a safer, durable, and stronger option when compared to wooden doors.

metal door
metal door

Steel door frames are usually combined with wooden, PVC, steel, and flush door shutters. Steel door frames are manufactured by pressing steel sheets, angles, channels, etc. Holdfasts and hinges are welded to the steel frames.
Steel frames are popular and are used for residences, factories, industrial buildings, etc. They are economical than conventional wooden frames.

Metal door shutters are manufactured from high-quality cold-rolled Mild Steel (MS) sheets, with a steel face and rock wool or foam insulation. Steel is a more economical and stronger option compared to other materials even though steel may not look as attractive as wooden or glass doors.
Metal doors are available in different tones and shades. They are durable, have minimal maintenance, and provide excellent security.

Types of Doors – Flush Doors

The flush door is made of a timber frame covered with plywood from both sides. However, the hollow core is filled with rectangular blocks of softwood just like block boards. Flush door surface finished with decorative finish by fixing veneers. The flush door is usually laminated or veneered to match the architectural themes. These doors are usually hinged type and have one side opening only. The frame can be of wooden, PVC, or steel.
Flush doors got a seamless look and are economical, look elegant, and are easily available in the market.

flush door
flush door

While providing these doors for toilets, baths; the inner face of the door should be covered with aluminum sheets to protect against water.

PVC Doors

PVC or polyvinyl chloride doors are a very popular choice for doors. They are available in a range of colors and styles. Furthermore these doors have high resilience, are anti-destructive, termite-proof, moisture-resistant, lightweight, etc. As a result they are best suited for areas with moisture chances like bathroom areas.
Polyvinyl doors come in a variety of designs types. colors, style and looks beautiful. Similarly these doors do not corrode like steel or disintegrate like wood and do not need much maintenance.
They are very simple and easy to install and are scratch-proof. These doors are not preferred for front doors due to their lightweight characters and inability to resist environmental conditions. These doors are cost-effective when compared to wooden and metal doors.

Types of Doors – UPVC Doors

uPVC stands for Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride. It is a form of plastic that is hard and inflexible, also known as rigid PVC. UPVC doors are a preferred choice of architects and home owners due to the superior qualities they offer when compared to other door materials like wood, metal , PVC etc

  • Easy to clean and maintain – UPVC doors can be cleaned by simply wiping with a soft cloth soaked with mild detergents even though they may not peel or cracks after years of usage.
  • UPVC Profiles are manufactured to accommodate double glass units (DGU) in fact provides excellent thermal and acoustic insulations. Furthermore glass panes can be substituted with reflective glass to reflect sunlight and keep the rooms cooler in summers.
  • Durability – UPVC is a highly durable material, in addition to that allows for the construction of doors and windows that are long-lasting. In addition to all above they are dust-proof, termite-proof, moisture, and weather-resistant.
  • Ease of installation – Similarly UPVC doors are very fast and easy to install.
UPVC doors
UPVC doors

Types of Door – Aluminium doors

Aluminium doors due to their excellent and durable qualities are the most preferred option for designers and architects. They are durable, strong and maintenance free material. The fabrication and installation is very easy and got the choice of using as member for DGU units for thermal insulation applications. Aluminium is expensive, however considering the superior qualities aluminium is preferred in most of the areas.


Apart from the types described above there are a lot of doors varieties available in the market to cater each and every situation and applications. However, these door type selection has to be in line with the requirements.

Aluminium Composite Panel || ACP sheets design

Aluminium composite panel, also known as an ACP sheet, is a modern panelling material used for building exteriors (facades), interiors, kitchen cabinets, and signage applications.

Aluminium composite panels are flat panels having a non-aluminium core sandwiched between two thin coil-coated aluminium sheets. Aluminium Composite Panel is the most durable and flexible decorative surface material available, with enhanced performance attributes. This article discusses the production process, ACP sheet types, advantages, and applications.

  1. What is an Aluminium Composite panel or ACP sheets ?
  2. Types of Aluminium Composite Panels (ACP)
    1. Non fire rated Aluminium Composite Panel (ACP)
  3. Fire rated Aluminium Composite Panels
  4. Advantages of Aluminium Composite Panels
    1. Light weight
    2. Flexible
    3. Availability and colour choices
    4. Environmental friendly
    5. Dimensional stability
    6. Smooth and elegant
    7. Cost
    8. Weather resistant and Durable
  5. Applications of Aluminium Composite Panels
    1. External and internal architectural cladding/partitions
    2. Internal partitions
    3. Signage
    4. Interior work
  6. Conclusion

What is an Aluminium Composite panel or ACP sheets ?

Aluminum composite panels are made up of two thin layers of aluminium sheets sandwiched by a polymer core. ACP sheet’s polymer core is made of Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) or Polyurethane. These polymer cores are made of components that are flammable and not fire-resistant. Because aluminium has a low melting point, the Aluminium composite panel is more flammable when the combustible polymer core is present. The presence of a combustible polymer core limits the use of Aluminium composite panel in fire-prone areas.

To improve fire resistance, polymer cores should be specially treated or over 90% (Non-Combustible Mineral Fiber FR core) sandwiched between two layers of aluminium skins should be used. To preserve the ACP sheets, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), fluoropolymer resin (FEVE), polyester coating, and other materials are applied. The typical thicknesses of aluminium composite panel are 2 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm.

Aluminium Composite Panels
Aluminium Composite Panels – Façade

Types of Aluminium Composite Panels (ACP)

Depending on the usage and fire rating standards ACP sheets are classified into two categories

  • Non fire rated grade
  • Fire rated grade

Non fire rated Aluminium Composite Panel (ACP)

Two thin layers of aluminium sheets plus a sandwiched polymer core make up aluminium composite panels. Aluminium Composite Panel’s polymer core is made of polyurethane or low-density polyethylene (LDPE). These Aluminium Composite Panels are not fire-rated since they are flammable and could catch fire. The use of these sheets is restricted based on the fire rating. The image below depicts a typical cross-section of an ACP sheet that is not fire-rated.

Non Fire rated or Standard Aluminium Composite Panel - Typical section
Non Fire rated or Standard Aluminium Composite Panel – Typical section

Fire rated Aluminium Composite Panels

Depending on the core composition, fire-rated Aluminium Composite panel can withstand fire for up to 2 hours. The core materials are the fundamental distinction between ACP sheets that are fire-rated and those that are standard. While the fire-rated ACP has a specially formulated fire-resistant mineral core, the standard ACP uses LDPE/HDPE as its core material. Fire resistant mineral core uses Magnesium hydroxide as core for enhanced fire retardant qualities. As the name suggests, Fire Grade Aluminium Composite Panels have the unique capability to withstand extreme temperatures. The highest grade ACP is fire retardant ACP (A2 GRADE), which contains over 90% inorganic material content.

Aluminium Composite Panel - Fire retardant grade
Aluminium Composite Panel – Fire retardant grade (Credits – Alstrong )

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Advantages of Aluminium Composite Panels

Aluminium Composite Panels are widely used nowadays because of their countless unique properties. Let’s highlight a few of its unique features that set it apart from other panelling materials.

Light weight

When compared to other building materials like steel, Aluminium Composite Panel is lightweight. This significantly reduces the design loads on the structure with big spans and vast areas involved. Lifting and erecting ACP sheets is simple. This, in turn, minimises labour and construction costs while maintaining the schedule.


The ACP sheet is flexible and very simple to use. The installation process is quick and simple, and the fixing framework construction is uncomplicated.

Availability and colour choices

This composite panel has exceptional flexibility because to the vast range of finishes it supports. Aluminium composite board can be textured, solid, mirror, or wood type to meet any architectural concept. The colour and feel of real stone and wood are effectively replicated on aluminium.

Environmental friendly

ACP is an environmentally friendly material that is composed of 85% recycled aluminium. ACP’s cover sheets and core material are both recyclable.

Dimensional stability

Aluminium composite panels got high dimensional stability and the material can remain stable for a long period without changing the dimensions.

Smooth and elegant

The exteriors of buildings can have a pleasant and attractive appearance because to the smooth, elegant ACP surface.


ACP sheet is the most economical panelling option when compared with other panelling materials. The cost depends on the core materials. The fire grade materials are costlier than standard non fire rated ACP.

Weather resistant and Durable

ACP panels are UV resistant and chemical resistant. They are unbreakable stain-resistant, weather-resistant, termite resistant, moisture resistant, and anti-fungal.

Applications of Aluminium Composite Panels

ACP sheet is mainly used for a wide range of applications due to its extraordinary qualities. Major uses of the ACP sheet are as follows.

  • External and internal architectural cladding 
  • Internal partition
  • False ceilings
  • Signage
  • Machine coverings
  • Container construction

External and internal architectural cladding/partitions

For exterior cladding/façade applications, ACP sheets are used, thanks to their versatile qualities like UV resistance, fire resistance, and durability. ACP sheets come in a wide range of colours to match any architectural style. ACP sheet is the material of choice for facades and partitions because of its lightweight characteristics, simple fixing procedures, and quick construction.

Internal partitions

Aluminium Composite Panels in combination with aluminium, UPVC etc are used for office cabins and internal partitions. Partitions can be done with minimal space wastage.


ACP is used to render a wide variety of flexible exterior signs, as signage and hoardings are being used for exterior applications and must survive changes in temperature or weather

Interior work

ACP sheets are used for interior applications such as wall coverings, false ceilings, cupboards, portable kitchen cabinets, tabletops, column covers, and more.


ACP sheets are Green and environmentally friendly, easy to clean, and can shorten the construction period. ACP panels are resistant to corrosion, prevents acid and alkali, and other types of corrosion. Due to these versatile properties, ACP sheets are one of the popular choices in the construction sector.

Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete- Fiberglass reinforced concrete Advantages

Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete or GFRC is made up of portland cement, fine aggregate, water, acrylic copolymer, alkali-resistant glass fibre, reinforcement, and additives. Glass fibre-reinforced concrete or GFRC is a type of fibre-reinforced concrete. The glass fibres used in Glass Fibre reinforcement concrete give this distinctive compound its strength. Alkali-resistant fibres serve as the primary tensile load-carrying member, while the polymer and concrete mix holds the fibres together. It assists in the transfer of load from one element to another.

These are mainly used in exterior building façade panels and as architectural precast concrete. Somewhat similar materials are fibre cement siding and cement boards. They consist of high-strength, alkali-resistant glass fibre embedded in a concrete matrix.

In this form, both fibres and matrix retain their physical and chemical identities, while offering a synergistic combination of properties that cannot be achieved with either of the components acting alone.

Let’s get into each of them now.

  1. Glass Fibre Reinforcement Concrete – Ingredients
    1. Cement
    2. Fine Aggregates
    3. Polymers
    4. Water
    5. Glass Fibre
    6. Other Admixtures
  2. Fibre Glass reinforced concrete – Casting Process
    1. Spray-Up
    2. Premix
    3. Hybrid method
  3. Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete Advantages
    1. Low weight and high strength of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete
    2. Freedom of shape of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete
    3. 3. Durability
    4. The appearance of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete
    5. Environment
  4. Applications of Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete
  5. Conclusions

Glass Fibre Reinforcement Concrete – Ingredients

The main ingredients used in Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete are as follows

Related contents from vinciviworld


Fine Aggregates

  • The fine aggregates usually should be river sand.
  • The fine aggregates used passed through a 4.75mm sieve and had a specific gravity of 2.68. The fine aggregates belonged to Zone II according to IS 383. 2


  • Acrylic polymer is typically preferred over EVA or SBR polymers for GFRC. Acrylic is non-retweetable, so once dry, it will not soften or dissolve, nor will it yellow from exposure to sunlight.
  • The solids content of most acrylic polymers used in GFRC ranges from 46% to over 50%.
  • Typically, the polymer dose is 4%- 7% solids by weight of cementitious material depending on the design.


Ordinary tap water which is safe and potable for drinking and washing was used to produce the concrete

Glass Fibre

  • Glass fibre, also known as fibreglass is made from extremely fine fibres of glass.
  • It is a lightweight, extremely strong and robust material. Glass fibre, the most popular of the synthetics, is chemically inert, hydrophobic, and lightweight.
  • They are manufactured as continuous cylindrical monofilaments that can be cut to specific lengths or cut as films and tapes before being formed into fine fibrils with rectangular cross-sections. Glass fibres that can withstand alkalis are a crucial part of GFRC. When using the spray-up method of casting, your sprayer will automatically cut the fibres and add them to the mixture as you apply it. If you’re casting with a premix or a hybrid method, you’ll have to mix the fibres along with other ingredients.
  • Although fibre content varies, it usually ranges from 3% to 7% of the total cementitious weight. High fibre content increases strength but decreases workability. Unlike most concrete mix design ingredients, fibres in GFRC are not calculated as a percentage of dry cementitious weight. Instead, they are calculated as a percentage of total weight. As a result, calculating fibre load in GFRC mix designs becomes quite complicated. Glass fibre, when used at a rate of at least 0.1 per cent by volume of concrete, reduces plastic shrinkage cracking and subsidence cracking over steel reinforcement.

Other Admixtures

  • Other ingredients to consider include pozzolans (such as silica fume, metakaolin, or VCAS) and superplasticizers.

So, we dug deep into the inside of Glass fibre-reinforced concrete. Next, let me walk you through the advantages of GFRC.

Fibre Glass reinforced concrete – Casting Process

GFRC is typically cast using two methods ie: spray up and premix. Let’s take a quick look at both, as well as a less expensive hybrid option.


The fluid concrete mixture is sprayed into the forms, similar to shotcrete. The process employs a specialised spray gun to apply the fluid concrete mixture while simultaneously cutting and spraying long glass fibres from a continuous spool. Spray-up produces very strong GFRC due to the high fibre load and long fibre length, but the equipment is very expensive.


Premix incorporates shorter fibres into the fluid concrete mixture before it is sprayed or poured into moulds. Spray guns for premix do not require a fibre chopper, but they can be very expensive. Premix has less strength than spray-up because the fibres are shorter and distributed more randomly throughout the mix. The cost and strength are comparatively lesser than the spray-up method.

Hybrid method

An inexpensive hopper gun can be used to apply the face coat while a handpicked or poured backer mix is used to create GFRC using a hybrid technique. A thin, fibre-free face (referred to as a mist coat or face coat) is sprayed into the moulds, and the backer mix is then packed in by hand or poured in, much like ordinary concrete. This is the method most concrete countertop manufacturers employ. This is an inexpensive way to get started. However, it is critical to carefully create both the face mix and the backer mix. This is to ensure similar consistency and makeup, as well as to know when to apply the backer coat. While doing so the backer coat can adhere properly to the thin mist coat without tearing it.

This method is comparatively inexpensive when compared to the r two methods. The face and backer mix are applied at different times ensure to have similar make-up of mixes to prevent curling

Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete Advantages

The main advantages are,

Glass fibre reinforced concrete
Glass fibre reinforced concrete

Low weight and high strength of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

  • Self-weight of structures decreases when Glass Fiber Reinforcement Concrete (GFRC) is used and demands on foundations are reduced.
  • GRC cladding is suitable even for very high-rise buildings and offers good performance under seismic loading.

Freedom of shape of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

  • GRC is easily moldable into a wide range of shapes, including intricate grilles, panels with a double curvature and 3-D objects.
  • The high freedom of shape permits the production of structurally very efficient elements.
  • Easily cast, it can produce items with very fine details and reproduce very complex features and elements of both modern and historic buildings.

3. Durability

  • Basic reinforcement is non-ferrous and the GRC products are not susceptible to corrosion as in traditional reinforced concrete.
  • Low permeability and a very slow rate of carbonation offer protection against the corrosion of steel in adjacent reinforced concrete.
  • GFRC has an inherently high resistance to extreme exposure conditions (freeze/thaw, fire etc.)

The appearance of Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

  • An extremely wide range of attractive surface finishes is available.
  • It satisfies the highest requirements for an aesthetic appearance of new structures and is capable of matching the colour and texture of surfaces of existing buildings.
  • Durable and brightly coloured surfaces with enhanced self-cleaning can be achieved in a variety of textures and shapes.


  • The relatively low weight of GRC products reduces CO2 emissions associated with their transport.
  • There are no Volatile_organic_compounds or other pollutants emitted from the material itself, neither in production nor in use.
  • GRC is fully recyclable into concrete and other applications.
  • In addition, the photocatalytic E-GRC reduces directly and significantly the concentration of pollutants in the surrounding air, leading to a better quality of the environment.
  • This is good especially in congested urban centres and at a minimal additional cost.

Also read: 3 d Printing buildings |Concrete Printing & Contour Crafting Methods Full Guide

Now, how about a quick glance through the applications?

Applications of Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete - Fascia
GFRC Building

Due to its versatility the range of GFRC is growing.

  • All the categories of buildings have been constructed using GFRC
  • Small, simple and unsophisticated items for everyday use are made using GFRC on a large-scale
  • Architects prefer GFRC to fulfil high structural complexity, size of construction elements, and freedom of shape to achieve spectacular appearance, durability and the highest quality
  • Positive environmental performance

That’s it. Time to sum up.


  • GFRC has a large scope of application and research and development is going on
  • It is a very versatile material and the freedom of shape makes it the number one choice by architects
  • Glass fibre reinforced concrete is used from small scale household products to large-scale buildings of structural complexity

So, how is our buddy GFRC? Let me know your thoughts in the comments.

Also read: Shotcrete – An overview| Shotcrete vs Gunite

Happy learning!

Difference between marble and tiles – How to make a choice?

The difference between marble and tile is the most hotly contested flooring material choice that enters the picture while finalising the interiors. Most interior materials are simple, quick, and inexpensive to replace. However, replacing flooring is a time-consuming and expensive process. Therefore, pick a flooring material that can complement the interior design themes and is durable and low-maintenance.

Spotify - Listen on Difference between marble and tiles
Spotify – Listen to the Difference between marble and tiles

Tile and marble both have advantages and disadvantages. Both are excellent and long-lasting flooring materials with hundreds of shades, colours, textures etc. A thorough comparison of tile and marble is provided in this article. This will assist you in making the right decision and choosing a flooring option that meets your requirements and budget.

  1. Difference between Marble and Tiles
  2. Difference between Marble and tiles – Composition
    1. Marble
    2. Tiles
  3. Difference between marble and tiles – Availability, classification & looks
    1. Marble vs tile
  4. Tile vs Marble – Porosity
  5. Tiles vs Marble – Environmental Friendly
  6. Difference between Marble and tiles – Cost
  7. Tile and marble – Wastages
  8. Marble vs Tile – Ease of handling and workmanship
  9. Conclusion
    1. Related

Difference between Marble and Tiles

Marble and tiles are excellent and unique flooring materials. However, both of these products are suitable for use in some situations but not in others. To choose the best material, we must first understand the differences between marble and tiles. This article discusses the differences between marble and tiles, as well as how they are classified based on various parameters.

Difference between Marble and tiles – Composition

The primary distinction between marble and tiles is the composition of the materials. Let’s analyse the composition of tiles and marble.


Marble is a natural stone formed by the metamorphic crystallisation of limestones. This metamorphic process involving high pressure and heat converts the limestone to calcite crystals with a variety of colours, swirls, and veins.

Difference between Marble and tile -Marble flooring
Marble flooring


Tiles are man-made flooring products made from natural clay or clay mixed with quartz, silica, and other composites and fired at high temperatures.

Difference between marble and tiles – Availability, classification & looks

Marble vs tile

Marble is a natural material that is available in a wide range of shades and colours, as well as swirls and veins.Tiles are man-made materials with digitally printed designs, colours, textures, and so on.
The natural feel of marble is unmatchable. Every piece is different from another. There may be wide differences between different lots of the same stone.The appearance and colour of tiles are factory-controlled. There is only minor variation between batches of tiles.
Shades and textures differ between batches. Purchasing the same marble after several years is difficult due to stone scarcity.Tiles are readily available in all most all places.
Difference between marble and tiles – Availability, classification & looks

Tile vs Marble – Porosity

Marble is semitransparent and has a high porosity. They stain after absorbing the liquids that fall on them. Due to high porosity issues, marble is mirror polished to reduce porosity and absorption rate. Hence marble is not preferred for wet areas like the kitchen, toilets, due to high porosity issues.

Tiles have low porosity and water absorption. They are ideal for high moisture areas such as bathrooms and kitchens.

Difference between Marble and tile -Marble flooring - Tile flooring
Difference between Marble and tile -Marble flooring – Tile flooring

Tiles vs Marble – Environmental Friendly

Marble is a natural material, but it is not an environmentally friendly option. They are nonrenewable resources, and the extraction process is both energy intensive and environmentally hazardous.

Tiles, on the other hand, are superior to marble, and the manufacturing process is also environmentally friendly.

Difference between Marble and tiles – Cost

Marble is more expensive than tile. Some types of marble-like Italian marble are expensive. Tile, on the other hand, is a cost-effective and affordable product with prices ranging from Rs.40/- per sqft to Rs.70/- sqft and higher. Marble is an expensive flooring material, whereas tiles are a more affordable option.

Tile and marble – Wastages

Marble is prone to cracking during transportation and installation. Furthermore, marble comes in slabs that must be cut into rectangular pieces before use. This leads to a significant amount of waste, which raises the cost of marble installation. Tiles typically have a waste rate of 3-5%, whereas marble has a waste rate of 15% to 20%.

Marble vs Tile – Ease of handling and workmanship

Marble is much heavier than tiles and comes in 16-20 mm thickness, whereas tiles are available in 8-10 mm thickness. Marble raises the dead load of the structure, which raises the design parameters. Furthermore, carrying and lifting marble is difficult, whereas tiles are easily carried and lifted.

Marble requires a highly skilled worker to cut and lay it, whereas fixing tiles is simple and quick. Tiles don’t require a highly skilled worker. Marble requires grinding and polishing, which is time-consuming, whereas tile can be laid quickly. Only joint grouting is required prior to handover.

Difference between Marble and tile -Italian Marble flooring
Difference between Marble and tile -Italian Marble flooring


Both marble and tile are excellent building materials. But the beauty and classic feel of marble can never be matched. Marble is a costly and luxurious finish material that is slowly moving out of the affordable material category. Tiles in turn are less expensive, easily available, got a vast variety of shades and textures, can be done very fast. Tiles are available for any traffic and abrasion levels and can match any architectural concept and theme.

Types of false ceilings – 7 ultimate ceiling types

Types of false ceilings, materials to be used and their selection are one of the most difficult challenges anyone should face when planning a new structure or restoring an existing one. The false ceiling materials should be durable and meet the requirements of the application locations. Ceiling systems are of numerous types for home interiors. False ceilings are classified in multiple ways based on their applications, materials used, appearance, and visibility. The most frequent categorisation, however, is based on the materials employed.

The false or drop ceiling is a great example of contemporary architecture both in residential and commercial applications. Different areas, lifestyles, and preferences necessitate the usage of various types of false ceiling materials. Continue reading to learn more about the seven trending varieties of false ceiling designs and materials that may be utilised to enhance your décor.

  1. Types of false ceilings
  2. Types of false ceilings – Related posts
  3. Plaster of Paris (POP)
  4. Gypsum board false ceiling – Types of False ceiling
  5. Metal False ceiling (Tile and plant type)
  6. Wooden False ceiling types
  7. PVC false ceilings
  8. Types of false ceilings – video
  9. Mineral fiberboard suspended ceiling
  10. Open grid false ceilings
  11. Conclusion

Types of false ceilings

In-home interiors, there are numerous types of false ceilings. False ceilings are classified depending on their applications, materials used, appearance, and visibility. The most frequent categorisation, however, is based on the materials utilised. Here are the seven most common varieties of false ceilings.

  • POP or Plaster of Paris false ceiling
  • Gypsum False ceiling
  • Metal False ceiling
  • Wooden False ceiling
  • Mineral fibre board false ceiling
  • PVC false ceiling
  • Open Grid Ceiling

Plaster of Paris (POP)

The most widely used, cost-effective, and favoured material for false ceilings, mostly in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors is Plaster of Paris or POP. POP is a white powder made by calcining gypsum, which means heated to a high temperature to eliminate the water content. For installation of plaster of Paris false ceiling, steel grids are suspended from the roof and are wrapped with chicken wire mesh. POP is mixed with water to form a paste and placed in layers over the chicken mesh, levelled, and finished.

POP is a flexible, resilient, and readily available material for false ceilings. Plaster of Paris is moulded, and designed to any shape, design, or pattern. Compared with other false ceiling materials, POP false ceilings are inexpensive, elegant, and low-maintenance.

The main disadvantage of POP is the time for completing the work and the massive waste it generates. However, on the whole, housekeeping costs will be substantial. Similarly, the plaster of Paris cannot match the factory-made superfine surface of gypsum boards. Moreover, POP is susceptible to water and moisture and to be avoided in wet and humid environments.

Plaster of Paris or POP false ceiling
Plaster of Paris or POP false ceiling

Gypsum board false ceiling – Types of False ceiling

Gypsum board is a premium and commonly used surface layer material for interior works like the wall, roof, and partition systems in residential, institutional, and commercial structures. The gypsum panel constitutes a non-combustible gypsum core and a tightly bonded specialised paper on the surface and long edges. Gypsum panels are mounted on steel frames that hang from the ceiling. The joints between the Gypsum boards are sealed with tape, giving the ceiling a seamless and elegant appearance. Apart from having an exquisite appearance, they also have fire resistance and acoustic properties. Likewise, Gypsum boards are economical, versatile and durable and easy to install.

Types of false ceilings - Gypsum board false ceiling
Gypsum board false ceiling

Metal False ceiling (Tile and plant type)

Metal false ceiling uses metals such as GALVANIZED IRON, STEEL, or ALUMINIUM. Likewise, metal false ceilings are strong, long-lasting, and simple to install. These ceilings are either grid-style or plank-style (linear pattern). Similarly, these metal ceiling tiles are simple to remove and reinstall after maintenance. However, compared to other false ceiling materials, metal ceiling types are less expensive, require minimal maintenance, and have a long lifespan. Metal ceiling tiles use suspended systems capable of holding panel and grid tiles in place.

Moreover, you can refer to our previous article Metal false ceiling kinds – Clip in and Lay in tile for more details.

Wooden False ceiling types

Wooden false ceilings are versatile, classic materials with diverse natural patterns and textures. These ceilings are installed using screws. Accordingly, for wooden false ceiling panels, block boards with veneer surfacing are adopted. However, the cost of a wooden false ceiling is substantial due to the high material cost and the higher maintenance expense. Wooden false ceilings are installed in the entire area or are similarly used as a highlighter with other false ceiling types. A wooden false ceiling is long-lasting, although it is susceptible to termite attacks and moisture.

Types of false ceilings -Wooden false ceiling
Wooden false ceiling

PVC false ceilings

PVC False Ceiling Planks, also known as Polyvinyl Chloride Planks, are durable, factory-manufactured, lightweight plastic materials. Likewise, polyvinyl chloride false ceilings have a robust, smooth surface and are available in a variety of styles, colours, widths, and lengths. They are popular and simple artificial ceiling choices for both residential and commercial settings. PVC planks are mostly used as false ceilings and wall covering materials. They are highly effective in resisting moisture and water and are commonly used in bathrooms, balconies, and other damp environments. Moreover, PVC false ceilings are reusable and are long-lasting materials that do not require any painting or polishing. They come in prelaminated shades and do not split, crack, warp or peel.

Types of false ceilings - PVC false ceilings
Types of false ceilings -PVC False ceilings

Types of false ceilings – video

Mineral fiberboard suspended ceiling

Mineral fibre board panels are produced from natural resources, recycled materials, and processed materials. They are made from recycled newspaper, perlite, fibreglass, mineral wool, and binding agents,  making them a highly reliable sound-absorbing option. 

Mineral fibreboard has exceptional acoustic and fire-resistant qualities. Mineral fibre board false ceilings, like metal false ceilings, have a suspended T- Grid Support system. The eco-friendly product is lightweight and easy to install.

Mineral fibre board false ceiling
Mineral fibre board false ceiling

The most significant disadvantage of mineral fibre is that it is fragile and easily breaks. Moreover, mineral fibre boards are susceptible to water and dampness, and painting over the surface is impossible. Because of their composition, the tiles should be handled with care throughout the production, installation, and maintenance operations.

Open grid false ceilings

Open Cell Ceiling systems are made up of several open-cell modules and are designed to be installed on a suspension grid. Grid ceilings are particularly useful for buildings that require lower ceilings without increasing the roof height. Metal ceiling support systems and gypsum board false ceilings are combined with the open grid ceiling tiles. Open cell ceilings are appealing and can provide a visually appealing effect to a room.

Open grid metal ceilings are appropriate for the leisure industry, schools, offices, and corporate structures,  as well as public spaces.

open-cell-ceiling (image courtesy Kohinoor decor)


False ceilings can be classified according to their application. These ceiling tiles make use of several materials to give a wide range of characteristics. Likewise, false ceiling panels are commonly used and can be intricately designed to improve the aesthetic characteristics of the ceiling.

Types of glass – Application and advantages

Types of glass and their applications and advantages is what described in this article. Glass is one of the most innovative human inventions having unique properties. The flexibility of usage of glass in architectural applications like doors, windows, facades, etc. makes it one of the popularly used products in the construction sector. This article is about the manufacturing process of glass, and major glass types used in construction and architecture applications.

Glass – Manufacturing process and properties

Glass manufacturing follows the fusion process method which involves fusing sand with grounded lime, soda, and other admixtures etc., and cooled to form glass. Glasses are transparent, translucent, or brittle. Following are the basic properties of glass that make it one of the most preferred and popular architectural choices.

  • Transparency: Glass is transparent from both sides or one side.
  • Strength of glass: Enhanced to any level by adding admixtures and laminates.
  • Workability of glass: Glass is flexible and possible to mold to any shape or even blown in the molten stage.
  • Transmittance end U value: Can control temperatures and extreme climatic conditions.
  • Glass is 100% recyclable
glass façade
glass façade

Types of glass and applications

There are mainly three types of glass

  • Annealed glass
  • Heat-strengthened glass
  • Toughened glass.

Types of glass – Annealed Glass

Annealed glass is popularly known as float glass or conventional glass. Ingredients like sand, grounded lime, admixtures are mixed and cooled for manufacturing annealed glass. Float glass has a perfectly flat, brilliant surface with optical clarity.
Different types of float glasses popularly used in the construction sector are as follows.

Clear glass/Float glass

Clear glass is a clear and transparent annealed glass. They got a natural greenish color. Clear glass is extensively used for architectural applications involving doors, windows, solar applications, shelves, etc. Other glass types use clear glass in their manufacturing process.

Tinted glass

Tinted glass is manufactured by adding small amounts of metal oxide to the glass ingredients. These ingredients regulate the transmission of solar energy and modify the color without changing the basic properties of the glass.

Frosted glass

Frosted glass is a translucent annealed glass type manufactured using sandblasting or acid etching techniques. This gives a pitted and rough surface with foggy appearance.

Applications of annealed glass

  • Annealed glass uses include application as table-tops. They infuse your room with an elegant and spacious look.
  • Used for external facades due to crystal clear vision.  It can provide you with natural daylight and improve ventilation
  • Used for external walls and can absorb 30-45% of the sun’s heat to enable greater comfort.
  • Doors, windows and shower screens

Types of glass – Heat Strengthened glass

Heat strengthened glass follows heating of annealed glass to a temperature of around 650-700 degree. The cooling process is much slower than the process used in the manufacturing process of tempered/toughened glass.

Heat-strengthened glass is a semi-tempered glass. It retains the normal properties of ordinary float glass. Heat strengthening adds strength to the glass by inducing surface compression and limiting the breakage chances. For heat strengthened glass the compression induced is in the range of 6000 to 9000 psi. However compression induced is around 11000 to 20000 psi in the case of fully tempered/toughened glasses.

  • Heat strengthened glass provides necessary resistance to heat build up during external applications.
  • Heat-strengthened glass differs from tempered glass in surface compression and possess mechanical strength of about 1.6-2 times that of annealed glass.
  • These glass got excellent thermal stability, whereas its flatness and light transmission is equal to that of annealed glass and much better than that of tempered glass.
  • Three times more resistant to thermal stress in comparison to normal annealed glass.
  • It can withstand temperature difference of 100°C (in range of 50°C to 150°C) when compared to ordinary annealed glass which can withstand up to 40°C.
  • Heat strengthened glass is less susceptible to spontaneous breakage.

Toughened glass

Tempered or toughened glass is a type of safety glass processed by controlled thermal or chemical treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass. Tempering puts the outer surfaces into compression and the interior into tension. Such stresses cause the glass, when broken, to shatter into small granular chunks instead of splintering into jagged shards as ordinary annealed glass does. The granular chunks are less likely to cause injury.

Toughening does not alter the basic characteristics of normal glass like light transmission and solar radiant heat. They possesses high thermal strength, and can withstand high temperature changes up to 250°C.

toughened glass
toughened glass

Advantages of toughened glass

Let us have a look into the advantages of toughened glass that makes its superior to ordinary glass.

  • Strength and safety : Toughened glass is extremely strong and can counter any temperatures and climatic changes and are less likely to break.
  • Scratch proof : Toughened glass is scratch proof and capable of maintaining the sheen and elegance of structures for years.
  • Heat resistance : Normal glass may crack in high temperatures where as the toughened glass manufacturing process involves heat tempering and hence capable of resisting high temperatures.
  • Design flexibility : Toughened glass got several design options like frosted, translucent, coloured, laminated options.