Category Archives: BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

Building construction is a field that deals with all the engineering aspects of putting up buildings. The building should be capable of transferring the expected loads in its life period safely to the ground. Design of various structural components like slabs, beams, walls, columns and footing should ensure safety. None of the structural components should buckle, overturn and collapse. All structural components should be so designed that deflections do not exceed the permissible values specified in the codes.

Difference between Built up Area, Carpet area, Plinth Area

You may run into terminology like “carpet area,” “built-up area,” and “super built-up area” if you’re considering purchasing a home. There are various types of areas in a building’s floor plan. Reading a floor plan is an important skill for a civil engineer to have. These are various methods of describing a property’s area. In this article, we will see about the different types of areas.

  1. Types of areas in Building Construction
    1. Real Estate Regulation and Development Act, 2016, (RERA)
    2. Plot area (Areas of building)
    3. Carpet area (Areas of building)
    4. Plinth area
    5. Super built-up area
    6. Set back area

Types of areas in Building Construction

We should be informed with the following building construction practises before making home buying plans. Following are the terminologies usually followed in dealing with building construction.

  • Plot area
  • Built-up area or Plinth area
  • Carpet area
  • Setback area
  • Super built-up area

Before getting into these terms first we have to know what is RERA 

Real Estate Regulation and Development Act, 2016, (RERA)

The Real Estate Regulation and Development Act, 2016, (RERA) is an act established by the Indian parliament. The main objective of RERA is to give prompt information between the buyers and sellers. This increases transparency and reduces the chance of cheating.

There are three different ways to calculate the area of the property. 

  • In terms of the Carpet area
  • In terms of Built-up area
  • In terms of Super built-up area

While buying a property buyer should pay for the area which is usable. RERA provides safety of money, buyer protection and balanced agreement.

Areas of Building
Areas of Building

Plot area (Areas of building)

The plot area includes the complete area which you own. This area comes under the fencing.

Plot area
Plot area

Carpet area (Areas of building)

Carpet area is a term which the real estate agent uses the most. It is the area of the building which can be covered by using carpet. It is also called a net usable floor area. 

Carpet Area = Total floor area – Area of internal/external walls

But as per RERA Carpet area = Total Floor area – Area of external walls

According to RERA flats should be sold on the basis of carpet area. The carpet area as per RERA is the area of usable spaces such as bedrooms, kitchen, bathroom, toilet etc. It also includes an area covered by internal partition walls. It excludes areas such as Balcony, utility areas, external walls area, open terrace area, lift, lobby, staircase etc. Mostly carpet area is 70% of its built-up area. 

Carpet area
Carpet area

Plinth area

The plinth area is also known as the Built-up area. It is the total area of the building within the plot area. It is mostly 30% of the total plot area. 

Built-up Area = carpet area + Area of walls

It includes living room, bedrooms, utility, bathroom, wall thickness, kitchen, balcony closed staircases etc. and excludes open terrace area, lift, open staircase, swimming pool etc. It is 10 to 15 % more than the carpet area.

Plinth area
Plinth area

Super built-up area

Super built-up area was used to measure the area of property before the RERA act came into existence. Because the super built-up area lowers the rate per square foot. Saleable area is another name of super built-up area.

Super Built-Up Area = Setback area+Built-up Area+20% of common area 

Super built-up area includes common areas like swimming pool, clubhouses, lobby, staircase, Lift, etc. and the built-up area of the flat. 

Set back area

Set back area is the space between the boundary and the building. It is the minimum open space necessary around the building. As per the municipal regulation a specific margin should be provided between building and road. 

Setback area = Built-up Area – Plot area

Setback area
Setback area

This provides sufficient ventilation, ease in vehicle movement and protection from other entities

Types of bonds in brick masonry walls – Advantages and features

Types of bonds in brick masonry commonly used in construction are detailed in this article. The process of bonding bricks with mortar in between them is known as brick masonry. Bricks are arranged in a pattern to maintain their aesthetic appearance and strength. This article is about the various types of bonds in brick masonry walls.

Bricks are rectangular construction materials. Bricks are commonly used in the construction of walls, paving, and other structures. They are also inexpensive and simple to work with.

  1. Types of Brick masonry bonds – Features
  2. Types of Bonds in brick masonry
    1. Stretcher bond – Types of Bonds in brick masonry
      1. Limitations of Stretcher bonds
      2. Applications of stretcher bonds
    2. Header bond – Type of Bonds in brick masonry
    3. English Bond – Types of bonds in brick masonry
    4. Flemish Bond
    5. Double flemish bond
    6. Single Flemish Bond
    7. Raking bond
    8. Zigzag Bond
    9. Facing Brick Bonds
    10. Dutch Bond
    11. Rat trap bond

Types of Brick masonry bonds – Features

For all types of brick masonry bonds to be stable and of high quality, the following characteristics must be followed.

  • Bricks should be uniform in size.
  • The lap should be a minimum of 1/4 brick along the length of the wall and 1/2 brick across the thickness of the wall.
  • Uniform lapping is to be maintained.
  • Avoid using too many brickbats.
  • For getting a uniform lap Length of the brick should be twice its width plus one joint.
  • The centre line of the header and stretcher in the alternate courses should coincide with each other for the stable wall.
  • Stretchers should be used in facing and a header should be used in hearing.

Types of Bonds in brick masonry

There are different types of brick masonry bonds. They are

  • Stretcher Bond
  • Header Bond
  • English Bond
  • Flemish Bond
  • Raking bond
  • Zigzag Bond
  • Herring-Bone Bond
  • Facing Bond
  • Dutch Bond
  • Diagonal Bond
  • Rattrap bond

Let us have a look at the most commonly used types of bonds in brick masonry.

Stretcher bond – Types of Bonds in brick masonry

The stretcher is the brick’s lengthwise face or otherwise known as the brick’s longer, narrower face, as shown in the elevation below. Bricks are laid so that only their stretchers are visible, and they overlap halfway with the courses of bricks above and below. Accordingly, In this type of brick bond, we lay the bricks parallel to the longitudinal direction of the wall. In other words, bricks are laid as stretchers in this manner. It is also referred to as a walking bond or a running bond. Additionally, it is among the simplest and easiest brick bonds.

Stretcher Bond - Types of bonds in brick masonry
Stretcher-Bond

Limitations of Stretcher bonds

  • Stretcher bonds with adjacent bricks, but they cannot be used to effectively bond with them in full-width thick brick walls.
  • They are only suitable for one-half brick-thick walls, such as the construction of a half-brick-thick partition wall.
  • Stretcher bond walls are not stable enough to stand alone over longer spans and heights.
  • Stretcher bonds require supporting structures such as brick masonry columns at regular intervals.

Applications of stretcher bonds

Stretcher bonds are commonly used as the outer facing in steel or reinforced concrete-framed structures. These are also used as the outer facing of cavity walls. Other common applications for such walls include boundary walls and garden walls

Header bond – Type of Bonds in brick masonry

Generally for header bond, the header is the brick’s widthwise face. In brick masonry, a header bond is a type of bond in which bricks are laid as headers on the faces. It’s also referred to as the Heading bond. The header is the brick’s shorter square face, measuring 9cm x 9cm. As a result, no skilled labour is required for the header bond’s construction. While stretcher bond is used for half brick thickness walls, header bond is used for full brick thickness walls that measure 18cm. Generally, in the case of header bonds, the overlap is kept equal to half the width of the brick. To achieve this, three-quarter brickbats are used in alternate courses as quoins.

header bond - Types of bonds in brick masonry
header bond

English Bond – Types of bonds in brick masonry

English bond uses alternative courses of stretcher and headers and is the most commonly used and the strongest bond in brick masonry. However, a quoin closer is used at the beginning and end of a wall after the first header to break the continuity of vertical joints. Mostly, a quoin close is a brick that has been cut lengthwise into two halves and is used at corners in brick walls. Similarly, each alternate header is centrally supported over a stretcher.

Types of bonds in brick masonry - English bond

Flemish Bond

In Flemish bond, each course is a combination of header and stretcher. Accordingly, the header is supported centrally over the stretcher below it. Generally,closers are placed in alternate courses next to the quoin header to break vertical joints in successive layers. Flemish bond, also known as Dutch bond, is made by laying alternate headers and stretchers in a single course. The thickness of Flemish bond is minimum one full brick.The drawback of using Flemish bond is that it requires more skill to properly lay because all vertical mortar joints must be aligned vertically for best results. Closers are placed in alternate courses next to the quoin header to break vertical joints in successive There are two types of Flemish bond

  • Double Flemish bond
  • Single Flemish bond

Double flemish bond

The double flemish bond has the same appearance on both the front and back faces. As a result, this feature gives a better appearance than the English bond for all wall thicknesses.

Single Flemish Bond

The English bond serves as the backing for a single flemish bond, which also includes a double flemish bond on its facing. As a result, both the English and Flemish bonds’ strengths are utilised by the bond. Similarly ,this bond can be used to build walls up to one and a half brick thick. Howerver,high-quality, expensive bricks are used for the double-flemish bond facing. Cheap bricks in turn may be used for backing and hearting.

The appearance of the Flemish bond is good compared to the English bond.  Hencer, flemish bond can be used for a more aesthetically pleasing appearance. However, If the walls must be plastered, English bond is the best choice.

Flemish bond

Raking bond

Raking bond is a type of brick bond in which the bricks are laid at angles. In this case, bricks are placed at an inclination to the direction of walls. Generally, it is commonly applicable for thick walls. Normally laid between two stretcher courses. There are two types of Raking bonds

raking bond
  • Diagonal bonds
  • Herringbone bonds

Diagonal bonds

In diagonal bonds, bricks are laid inclined, the angle of inclination should be in such a way that there is a minimum breaking of bricks. These dioganal bonds are mostly applicable for walls of two to four brick thickness. Similarly, the triangular-shaped bricks are used at the corners. 

Herringbone bonds

This type of bond is applicable in thick walls. The bricks are laid at an angle of 45 degrees from the centre in two directions. Mostly used in paving. 

Zigzag Bond

In this type of bond, bricks are laid in a zig-zag manner. It is similar to the herringbone bond. Since Zig zag bond has an aesthetic appearance it is used in ornamental panels in brick flooring. 

zig zag bond
zig zag bond

Facing Brick Bonds

In facing bond bricks are used of different thicknesses. It has an alternative course of stretcher and header. The load distribution is not uniform in this type of bonding. So it is not suitable for the construction of masonry walls.

facing bond
facing bond

Dutch Bond

It is a type of English bond. The specific pattern of laying bricks for building a wall is known as English and Dutch bonds. The primary distinction is that English Bond is a bond used in brickwork that consists of alternate courses of stretchers and headers. Dutch bond – made by alternating headers and stretchers in a single course.

Rat trap bond

rat trap bond
rat trap bond

Another name of the rat trap bond is the Chinese bond. In this type of bond, the bricks are placed in such a way that a void is formed between them. These voids act as thermal insulators. Thus provides good thermal efficiency. It also reduces the number of bricks and the amount of mortar. Construction of rat trap bonds requires skilled labours.

What is a Plinth beam? Plinth beam height and size

What is a plinth beam in construction? Plinth beams are horizontal structural elements that are built at the plinth level. It is the first beam built after the foundation has been completed. Furthermore, the plinth beam is an important component in a building because it serves as a foundation for brickwork as well as a moisture barrier, preventing moisture from entering the superstructure walls. The height of the plinth beam is typically 200mm to 450mm. It can be both reinforced and unreinforced.

The most important components of a building are the substructure and superstructure. The substructure is the part of the building that is below ground level, while the superstructure is the part of the building that is above ground level. The plinth level separates the substructure from the superstructure. The plinth beam follows the foundation’s construction. This article discusses what a plinth beam is, as well as plinth level, plinth beam size, and plinth beam height.

  1. What is a plinth?
  2. What is a plinth beam?
  3. Plinth beam in construction – Functions and advantages
  4. Size of plinth beam
  5. Plinth beam reinforcement
  6. Plinth beam construction

What is a plinth?

The plinth is the structural stratum that separates the superstructure and substructure of a building. All structures must have a ground floor that is 45 to 60 centimetres higher than the surrounding ground. This will prevent rainwater, dirt, and dust from entering the building. Because of this, the outer dimensions of a pedestal constructed first are slightly larger than those of the ground floor. That is referred to as the Plinth. A level or base known as a plinth is used to support superstructure walls, columns, and other structures. The plinth’s function is to distribute pressure and load evenly across a surface.

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What is a plinth beam?

A plinth beam, as the name implies, is a beam at the plinth level. It is a particular kind of beam that is situated at the bottom of a framed structure. Because it holds the columns in place, it is also referred to as a Tie Beam. A horizontal structural component that joins the columns at the plinth level of the building is called a plinth beam. It is constructed above the top of the plinth level in load-bearing walls to aid in uniform load distribution and building settlement. Plinth beams reduce the length and slenderness ratio of a column. These beams are installed to prevent foundation cracks from spreading into the structure.

The plinth beam is located at 1.5 to 2 ft above Ground Level

Plinth beams are installed to stop cracks from the foundation from spreading into the wall above when the foundation settles. Plinth beams distribute the load of the wall evenly over the foundation.

Plinth beam in construction – Functions and advantages

Following are the functions and advantages of plinth beams

  • To prevent the development of cracks from the foundation to the walls
  • For distributing loads uniformly from columns to the foundations via superstructure.
  • Prevention of differential settlement
  • To prevent the entry of dampness in the structure. 
  • For avoiding the collapse of building due to earthquakes. It is crucial to provide plinth beams in earthquake-prone areas.
  • For providing support for walls
  • To reduce the effective length of columns. 
  • Prevention of column buckling
  • To withstand lateral forces. 
  • It saves buildings by preventing differential settlement which is caused by the partial failure of substructure or by the failure of soil on which buildings are constructed.
  • It provides uniformity to buildings at the plinth level.
  • The best application of a plinth beam is to withstand outside actions such as water, tree roots, and termites which could affect the life of the plinth.
plinth beam
plinth beam

Size of plinth beam

The plinth beams are designed in accordance with IS 132920-2016. According to the IS Code, the minimum width of the plinth beam cannot be less than 250mm. The depth should be not more than 1/4 of the clear span and not less than 200mm depth. In addition, the span to overall depth should be between 15 and 18. The concrete strength of the plinth beams shall not be less than 200Mpa.

Plinth beam
Plinth beam

Plinth beam reinforcement

At the bottom of the beam, two bars with a minimum diameter of 12mm are recommended. Similarly, two bars with a minimum diameter of 10mm must be provided at the top of the plinth beams. A 25mm concrete cover should be used to protect reinforcement bars. The stirrup diameter should be at least 6mm, with a 15cm spacing.

Plinth beam construction

1) Determining the mark-up width First, the plinth level is marked. Plinth beams are usually half the width of the foundation. The skeleton is prepared after marking the width of the plinth. The beam reinforcement must then be completed prior to shuttering.

2) Formwork Installation The next step is to put up formwork. Steel, wood, or plastic must be used for formwork. By levelling the ground, you can fix the formwork properly.

3) Concrete pouring Before pouring concrete, make sure the shuttering is dry and all the joints are tight.

4) Pouring of the concrete

Before pouring concrete, ensure the shuttering is dry and all the joints are tight. Pour the concrete evenly. 

5) Curing of the Concrete

After the concrete is dried, It is cured for at least 7 to 14 days for attaining good strength and durability

5) Removal of Formwork

After curing Once the concrete is set, remove the formwork. 

Types of Cracks in Building- 14 Building Cracks Types- Causes & Prevention

Types of cracks in building varies with the type of building and construction. Cracks are always a hint of the stability and strength of the structure. Here we are going to find out the main causes and the remedial measures to tackle each of them.

  1. Main causes of different types of cracks in building
    1. Thermal Movement
      1. Preventive Measures for thermal movement
    2. Chemical Reaction
      1. Preventive Measures for the types of cracks in building
    3. Shrinkage
      1. Preventive Measures
    4. Building cracks types generated due to quantity of Cement
      1. Preventive Measures
    5. Earthquake
      1. Preventive Measures
    6. Vegetation
      1. Preventive Measures for the types of cracks in building
    7. Bad construction practices cause some types of cracks in building
      1. Preventive measures
    8. Corrosion Cracks
      1. Preventive measure
    9. Types of cracks in building due to elastic deformation
    10. Foundation movement and settlement of soil
    11. Permeability of concrete
    12. Poor Workmanship
    13. Lack Of Maintenance
    14. Types of cracks due to structural design

Main causes of different types of cracks in building

There are different types of cracks in building depending on the causes. Let’s jump right into one at a time.

  • Thermal Movement
  • Chemical Reaction
  • Shrinkage
  • Types of cracks generated due to cement quantity
  • Earthquake cracks
  • Vegetation
  • Building crack types due to bad construction practices
  • Corrosion cracks
  • Types of cracks in building due to elastic deformation
  • Foundation movement and settlement of soil
  • Permeability of concrete
  • Poor workmanship
  • Lack of maintenance
  • Type of cracks due to structural design failures

Thermal Movement

  • This is a common cause of cracks in building.
  • Thermal movement is the expansion and contraction with changes in temperature regardless of the structure’s cross-sectional area.

Preventive Measures for thermal movement

Joints need to be built like construction joints, expansion joints, control joints and slip joints.

Chemical Reaction

  • There are chances of chemical reactions to occur because of the materials used to build the concrete or materials.
  • Cracks might develop in concrete periodically as the result of developing expansive reactions between aggregate having active silica and alkalis from cement hydration, admixtures or external sources.

Preventive Measures for the types of cracks in building

If sulphate content in soil is greater than 0.2 percent or in ground water exceed 300 ppm, leverage very dense concrete and either increase richness of mix to 1:1/5:3.

Shrinkage

  • Majority of the building materials expand when they absorb moisture from the atmosphere and shrink when they become dry.
  • In this type of cracks in the building, the main causes of cracks are the excess water. The amount of water needed in the mortar mix causes shrinkage.
  • Shrinkage cracks may also be due to heat of hydration and lack of curing.

Preventive Measures

Use minimum quantity of water for mixing cement concrete or cements mortar according to water to cement ratio .

Building cracks types generated due to quantity of Cement

Building cracks types : Due to cement quantity
Building cracks types : Due to cement quantity

The proportion should be such that the cement in the mix is optimum. Higher the cement, greater the shrinkage/drying.

Preventive Measures

Do not use excessive cement in the mortar mix.

Earthquake

Crack happens because of the rapid shift in lower layer of the earth.

Preventive Measures

Build the foundation of building on firm ground. Tie up the building at base level, door level and roof level with connecting beams.

We covered the first five types of cracks in building. Good to have you here. Let’s move on to the remaining.

Vegetation

  • Due to the expansive action of root growing under the base, fast growing trees may often cause cracks in walls in the area around the walls.
  • Also, due to moisture contained by roots, cracks occur in clay soil.

Also read: Concept of green building- 4 comprehensive concepts easy read!

Preventive Measures for the types of cracks in building

Do not plant trees too close to the house. If they start growing in or near walls, remove any saplings from the trees as quickly as possible.

Bad construction practices cause some types of cracks in building

Building crack types : Bad construction practice
Building crack types : Bad construction practice
  • Owing to indifference, carelessness, greed or incompetence, there is a general lack of good building practices
  • It is certainly vital for the building agency and the owner to ensure high quality material selection and good construction practices for a safe building.

Preventive measures

At the time of construction, careful inspection and use of materials of high quality is required.

Corrosion Cracks

  • The pH level of the concrete under normal conditions is high (above 12.5).
  • The high concrete pH allows for the formation of an inactive layer of ferric oxide around the reinforcement, avoiding corrosion.
  • The reinforced steel has two important causes of corrosion:
  1. Chloride penetration

2. Carbonation.

  • Penetration of chloride decreases the concrete’s pH level as oxygen, chlorides, and moisture both enter the concrete.

Preventive measure

As per IS 456-2000, use acceptable covers. When mixing concrete, use potable water.

Types of cracks in building due to elastic deformation

  • In different sections, unevenly loaded walls experience enormous variations in stress that cause cracks in walls.
  • Different shear stresses in these materials result in cracks at the junction when two building materials like masonry, concrete, steel, etc.
  • with broadly different elastic properties are constructed together under the impact of load.
  • In a building’s structural elements, dead and living loads cause elastic deformation.
  • The amount of deformation depends significantly on the material’s elastic modulus, the loading magnitude and the component dimensions.

Foundation movement and settlement of soil

  • Shear cracks occur in the base due to enormous differential settlement. Structures built on expansive soils that are susceptible to swelling due to changes in soil moisture content are highly susceptible to cracking when absorbing moisture and shrinking when drying.

Permeability of concrete

  • The process of corrosion in concrete begins with the penetration of many aggressive agents and is a significant cause of wall cracks.
  • Essentially, the ability of concrete to withstand weathering action, chemical attack or some other degradation mechanism is dictated.
  • Low permeability is thus the primary factor in concrete resilience.
  • Concrete permeability, water-cement ratio, curing, air voids due to poor compaction, use of admixtures, micro-cracks due to loading, cyclic exposure to thermal variations, and concrete ageing are influenced by several factors.
  • Cement mixture permeability is a feature of the water-cement ratio due to high-quality materials, sufficient proportioning, and good construction practice.
  • Concrete permeability is a direct result of the interconnection and porosity of the cement paste pores.

Poor Workmanship

Building cracks types due to poor workman ship
Construction worker building a structure
  • The lower mixing of building materials such as sand, cement and concrete, creates cracks on walls, slabs, beams, etc.
  • Bad workmanship typically results from a lack of proper oversight, incompetence, neglect, and many others, or a mixture of all of these.

Lack Of Maintenance

  • It is necessary to take good care of your home at all times, and this can be achieved by doing routine maintenance work.
  • This means the foundation of the building remains intact and it also contributes to its lifetime.

Time to meet the last cause. Its the structural design of the structure.

Types of cracks due to structural design

  • Poor or bad structural design and specifications are another striking causes of the cracks in buildings made of majorly concrete.
  • The designer needs to consider all the environmental aspects which include soil investigations, this will enable the designer to come up with a properly robust design of the foundation.

In nutshell, each type of cracks have to be analysed and proper treatment methods and retrofits have to be adopted to restore the structure to last long.

Hope the article could educate you on the types of cracks in building, the main causes and preventive measures. Let me know if you have any doubts in the comments.

Happy learning!

Components of staircase – Importance and functions

The components of the staircase must fulfil specific functional requirements. The main components of the staircase include Stringers, Treads, Risers, flights, Winders, Landing, Handrails Balusters etc. A staircase is one of the most important structural elements of a building. The primary function of a staircase is to facilitate movement from one floor to another. Staircases can be straight or curved and made of reinforced concrete, steel, wood, stones, and other materials. Staircases enhance the aesthetic appearance of the building in addition to providing access between floors.

It is necessary to understand the various components of the staircase as well as its functions when detailing it. This article discusses the components of a staircase and their functions.

  1. Components of Staircase
    1. Tread – Horizontal Components of the staircase step
    2. Rise – Vertical components of the staircase step
    3. Step – Combination of vertical and horizontal components of the staircase
    4. Curtail step
    5. Nosing
    6. Flight
    7. Landing – Crucial components of the staircase
    8. Going
    9. Winders
    10. Railing
    11. Baluster
    12. Run
    13. Soffit
    14. Stringer
    15. Waist

Components of Staircase

The staircase is made of several components and each component is associated with specific functional requirements. Following are the components of a staircase.

  • Tread
  • Rise
  • Steps
  • Curtail step
  • Nosing
  • Flight
  • Landing
  • Going
  • Winders
  • Railing
  • Baluster
  • Run
  • Soffit
  • Stringer
  • Waist
Components of Staircase
Components of Staircase

Tread – Horizontal Components of the staircase step

A tread is a major horizontal component of the staircase where we put our feet. The depth of tread is the distance between the staircase’s inner and outer edges. The tread width is the distance along the width of the steps. Generally, the tread of the staircase should be 270 mm in residential buildings and 300 mm in public buildings.

Rise – Vertical components of the staircase step

A rise in a staircase is the vertical component of the staircase step. It serves as a support for the treads. The vertical distance between successive treads is referred to as the rise. Generally, the riser should be 150 mm for public buildings and 190 mm for residential buildings.

Step – Combination of vertical and horizontal components of the staircase

Steps are the combination of treads and risers. Similarly, a pair of risers and tread makes a step. Basically, it is the functional unit of a staircase. 

Curtail step

The curtail step is the first step in the staircase. The width of the curtail step can be more than the normal steps. The curtail step is another major components of the staircase which acts as a base for the staircase. 

Nosing

The edge of a stair tread that projects out horizontally is known as the nosing. In general, nosing has a rounded edge. However, the length of the nosing should not exceed 1.5″. Basically, nosing enhances the appearance of the staircase. The line of nosing is the imaginary line that connects the nosing. This line runs parallel to the stairwell’s incline.

Flight

Flight is a component of the staircase that consists of a series of steps. Basically, it is the total steps between the two landings. Generally, flights consist of 8 to 10 steps. 

Landing – Crucial components of the staircase

Landing is the horizontal space between two flights. It acts as a space to change the direction of the staircase. Generally, the minimum height of the landing should be 7 feet. The width of a landing is the distance between one end to the other end, which is normally equal to the width of the step. 

Landing
Landing

Going

Going is the distance measured from the nosing of successive treads. It is the horizontal distance between the consecutive risers. 

Winders

Winders are tapering steps. That is one end of the step is narrower than the other. Likewise, It is a type of step which helps in changing the direction of the staircase. Basically, it acts as a landing. However, Spiral staircases consist of a series of winders. 

Compounds of staircase - Winder stair
Winder stair

Railing

The railing is a components of staircase which is used for holding hands. Generally, it is inclined and parallel to the slope of the staircase. Similarly, they act as protective bars. Generally, they are made using timber. 

Baluster

The baluster is the vertical component of the handrail. Basically, balusters act as a support for the railing. 

Run

The total length of the series of flights including the length of landing is the run of a staircase

Soffit

The bottom part of the staircase component is the soffit. Basically, this place is suitable as a storage area.

Stringer

The components in the staircase which support the risers and treads are the stringer. There are two types of stringers,

  • Cut or type stringers
  • Closed or Housed type stringers

They are parallel to the slope of the staircase.

Waist

The staircase is rest on a thick RCC slab. This RCC slab is known as the waist slab. It is perpendicular to the soffit of the staircase. 

A Comprehensive Guide To Construction Drawings For Your Building

The Construction drawings for a house are the most important document in home-building. It contains instructions on how to construct your new house or add-on, which contractors to hire, and how they should do their job.

A blueprint is an overview of the entire construction project photographed from above. It means that all of the construction drawings for your building will be contained within a single blueprint sheet, making it easy to follow along with what’s happening during various stages of construction. A blueprint sheet will have a lot of information.

Each scale drawing has a title, starting with the plan, the number, and name of the architect, scale measurements, and legal description of the property. You will also see different scale drawings.

Different Types Of Assembly Drawings

There are many types of assembly drawings. They include foundation, tanking and foundation cut-always, crawl space and slab information, parapet wall, and roof details. Foundation drawings are required for new construction, additions, and modifications to existing structures. It shows all the walls, floor supports, and footings used to support the house’s floors, structures, and external components.

1. Standard Assembly Drawings – 

These drawings are a set of drawings that show how to put the parts together. It establishes a basis for construction and design. The main elements are framing, sheets, lumber, blocking, and trim/molding materials.

Structural fabrication and erection

2. Outline Assembly Drawings –

A preliminary set of drawings establishes the general appearance of the work.

3. Detail Assembly Drawings – 

It provides more detail on construction details such as existing and proposed walls, ceilings, and other finishes.

4. Assembly Working Drawings – 

The drawings show the construction process and include foundation details of the framing, floors, cabinets, and stairs.

5. Tabular Drawings – 

It contains all the information needed to construct the project. They are usually kept in a text file or spreadsheet and give you information on the actual sizes, quantities, and room locations.

6. Diagram Drawings – 

Diagram drawings are simple drawings of a floor plan and elevation drawings that show how any given elements work to create the project’s design.

Also read: Areas of building | Built-up area | Carpet area | Super built-up area

Why Are Assembly Drawings Necessary?

All structural elements of the building must be drawn in detail, anticipating all expected loads on the structure. These details must also include all internal and external spaces within the new building, anticipate potential problems, and propose solutions.

Structural drawings are the blueprints of the construction sheets: they show all structure elements, including beams and columns, walls, and flooring. It is a series of symbols and lines that illustrate any load-bearing or non-load-bearing walls. Sustainable cities and constructions of the future require high-quality structural drawings.

What Are The Major Inclusions Of Assembly Drawings?

Building plans include a profile view of your house, including the side elevations or front and rear views. In addition, the plan sets out the orientation of your house, inside to outside. When reading a structural drawing, you need to understand that there are many different kinds of assemblies. However, there are three basic types of structurally significant assemblies: frame, floor, and roof.

  1. A-frame assembly comprises a top plate, bottom plate, and posts. The basic elements of an assembly are the post. These are angled beams that are attached to foundation walls, floors, or exterior walls.
  2. The landfills and roof beams are considered as frame assemblies. They include facets such as posts, beams, headers, and joists or wooden floorboards. The next assembly is a floor assembly. It is a structural system that supports the weight of all upper floors and roofs. 
  3. The roof assembly is the third major structural assembly. It consists of a top and bottom chord, common rafters, collar ties, or trusses.
Building construction drawing

The Importance Of Construction drawing In Designing A Building

  1. Scope of construction – 

Construction drawings are all about explaining and showing the finished product. The job is to document and view the construction process. That’s why structural engineers design the building, show their drawings, and then give their clients a set of construction drawings.

  1. Importance of construction drawing

The drawing is about the design and the assembly of everything working together for a living space, so you need to be able to tell more than one story. It deserves a lot of attention.

  1. Staff size – 

It is a big job, and they usually work with several people who help them draw the design and then give the construction drawings to the client.

  1. Provides information – 

It involves many people who have to provide a lot of information. This information should be precise and clear, as it is about planning for the future.

  1. Safety –

 It plays an important role in the design and construction process to ensure the safe construction of the building.

How To Produce A Construction Drawing 

There are many ways to make construction drawings. Today’s most common ways workers use photo plotting, CAD (Computer Assisted Drawing), and hand drafting. CAD is an advanced technology, and using it is quite easy. India CAD works enable you to make construction drawings with ease. You can create as many construction drawings as possible and share them with your clients. Many construction companies use it to execute their projects and make best-selling construction drawings for their clients. With CAD, you can create various drawings, from simple to complex. You can design and add any number of view layers and color them in any way you like.