Waffle slabs are ribbed reinforced concrete slabs. A waffle slab often referred to as a ribbed slab, is a structural component that is plain on top and has a grid pattern on the bottom. A waffle slab also called a two-way joist slab got ribs running perpendicular to each other in two directions on the underside. This slab resembles pockets of waffles because of its grid pattern. Hence they are named Waffle slab systems.… Read More Waffle Slab or Ribbed slab details and Construction, Advantages
Curing of concrete is the process of maintaining requisite moisture and temperature in hardened concrete for continued hydration. The curing of concrete plays a prime role in maintaining the design strength and durability of concrete. This article explains the significance of curing, and the types of curing methods prevailing in construction sites.… Read More Curing of Concrete – Concrete Curing Methods explained
What is intelligent transportation system?Intelligent transportation system is a hot topic among all civil engineering subjects that has gained popularity and many countries are successfully implementing it. With the rapidly exploding population, ITS has even become a mandatory technique in all countries. Here, we are going to read through the main components of the intelligent transportation system. We will swim through the benefits of intelligent transportation system in the middle, then to uses and challenges of ITS.… Read More Intelligent transportation system – Components of Intelligent transportation system
Construction joints in concrete are a crucial and fundamental component of civil engineering and construction. Changes in temperature and moisture can cause concrete to expand and contract. Because concrete is weak in tension, shrinkage and volume change in concrete cause cracks. The construction joints installed at strategic locations prevent the formation of cracks in concrete… Read More Construction Joints in concrete – Construction joint types in slabs
What is a plinth beam in construction? Plinth beams are horizontal structural elements that are built at the plinth level. It is the first beam built after the foundation has been completed. Furthermore, the plinth beam is an important component in a building because it serves as a foundation for brickwork as well as a moisture barrier, preventing moisture from entering the superstructure walls. … Read More What is a Plinth beam? Plinth beam height and size
Furrow irrigation is one of the surface irrigation methods. It is subdivided into straight furrows and contour furrow. I will explain the important details about each of them. Also, we will find out the construction method and advantages of furrow irrigation in the blog. Furrow method of irrigation is very much used for row crops like maize, jowar, sugarcane, cotton, tobacco, groundnut, potatoes etc. … Read More Furrow Method of Irrigation – Definition, Types and Advantages
Glass fiber reinforcement concrete or GFRC is made up of portland cement, fine aggregate, water, acrylic copolymer, alkali-resistant glass fibre, reinforcement, and additives. Glass fiber reinforced concrete or GFRC is a type of fiber-reinforced concrete. The glass fibres used in Glass Fiber reinforcement concrete give this distinctive compound its strength. … Read More Glass fiber reinforcement concrete – GFRC Ingredients, Mix and Applications
Glass fibre reinforced concrete or GFRC is a type of fibre-reinforced concrete. These are mainly used in exterior building façade panels and as architectural precast concrete. Somewhat similar materials are fibre cement siding and cement boards. They consist of high-strength, alkali-resistant glass fibre embedded in a concrete matrix. In this form, both fibres and matrix retain their physical and chemical identities, while offering a synergistic combination of properties that cannot be achieved with either of the components acting alone.… Read More Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete- Fiberglass reinforced concrete Advantages
Los Angeles Abrasion test is to measure the abrasion resistance value of aggregates. Aggregate is the fundamental and essential component of concrete, flexible pavements, etc. More than 70 to 80 percent of the volume of concrete is aggregate. … Read More Los Angeles abrasion Test on Aggregates
Properties of Cement like fineness,consistency,setting time,heat of hydration,soundness etc plays significant roles in maintaining the quality of structure.… Read More Physical Properties of Cement – Significance and impacts
PCC concrete of Plain Cement Concrete (PCC) is without reinforcement steel. Plain cement concrete (PCC) is high in compression and very low in tension. Plain cement concrete is commonly used over the ground to keep footing reinforcement from coming into direct contact with the soil. What do you mean by Plain cement concrete? How to select a concrete? What are the ingredients of plain cement concrete? Work procedure for placing plain cement concrete?… Read More PCC Concrete – Plain Cement Concrete – PCC in Construction
Biochemical Oxygen Demand is a term all of us come across in most of the articles on water pollution. In this blog, I will walk you through Biochemical Oxygen Demand, its significance and measurement. Before delving into Biochemical Oxygen Demand we should first understand the concept of Dissolved Oxygen (DO), its significance and measurement.… Read More What Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Measures?
Types of cracks in building varies with the type of building and construction. Cracks are always a hint of the stability and strength of the structure. Here we are going to find out the main causes and the remedial measures to tackle each of them. There are 14 causes of cracks in building Let’s jump right into one at a time. Joints need to be built like construction joints, expansion joints, control joints and slip joints.… Read More Types of Cracks in Building- 14 Building Cracks Types- Causes & Prevention
Components of staircase has to perform unique functional requirements. A staircase is one of the most important components of a building. The primary purpose of a staircase is to facilitate the movement from one floor to another. Staircases are straight or round and constructed using reinforced concrete, steel, wood, stones, etc. Apart from serving as access between floors, staircases increase the aesthetic appearance of the building.… Read More Components of staircase – Importance and functions
Testing of Bricks is performed both on the job site and in the laboratory. A variety of test on bricks is performed to verify their suitability for use in construction. Bricks are one of the oldest and most significant building materials due to their longevity, dependability, strength, and low cost.… Read More Testing of Bricks – Top 8 Test on bricks to ensure quality
Dams are obstructions constructed across the water bodies to control the water flow and water levels. Each components of dams play specific roles in managing their prime responsibility of managing water. This article is about the components of dam and their functions.… Read More Components of dam – 12 dam components explained
Types of Raft Foundation are chosen based on a variety of criteria, including bearing capacity, applicable loads, site conditions, cost-effectiveness, etc. A raft foundation is a continuous slab resting on the soil and covering the entire area of the proposed structure. This is one of the most commonly used types of foundation in construction. Raft foundation types are classified according to their application.… Read More Types of Raft Foundations – Advantages and features
The difference between marble and tile is the most hotly contested flooring material choice that enters the picture while finalising the interiors. Most interior materials are simple, quick, and inexpensive to replace. However, replacing flooring is a time-consuming and expensive process. Therefore, pick a flooring material that can complement the interior design themes and is durable and low-maintenance.… Read More Difference between marble and tiles – How to make a choice?
The progressive house design of a house is the one that admits change; a house that grows as your needs change… You can definitely find one in nova city skymarketing .… Read More How to Design a Progressive House that Grows and Transforms?
Ecological house or Earthship House models are passive, bioclimatic, and self-sustaining designs. An architecture that promotes the reuse of waste materials and energy independence.… Read More Ecological House – How to Build with Materials that Society Throws Away
Interior design is the art or practice of strategizing and managing the planning, design and execution of architectural interiors and their finishes and furnishings. When we decide to build our home, a path begins that generates proposals in a much larger spectrum than what refers to the house itself.… Read More Interior Design: 3 Key Points and 3 (Common) Mistakes to Avoid
Prefabricated and modular houses, as found in New City Paradise, are like putting together a puzzle. But best of all is that from one or more pieces, it is you who decides the final image. The future of housing design will probably be increasingly closer to the modality of prefabricated and modular houses.… Read More Prefabricated and modular houses – 10 Amazing designs. | Advantages and Disadvantages
The bitumen softening Point Test is done to determine the consistency of bitumen. Bitumen is a viscoelastic material, which means it behaves like both a liquid and a solid state. It does not have a specific melting point. As the temperature increases, the bitumen becomes softer and the viscosity of the bitumen decreases. One of the common parameters for classifying bitumen is the softening point of the bitumen. This property shows at what temperature the bitumen softens. … Read More Bitumen Softening Point Test – Ring and ball method
Types of foundations – This article focuses on different types of foundations used in civil engineering. The foundation is the most crucial component of any structure/building because it transfers the total loads of the structure and its components to a competent ground surface. There are two types of foundations. ie: Shallow foundations and deep foundations… Read More Types of foundations in civil engineering
Raft foundation is a continuous slab that completely covers the entire site of the proposed structure and rests on the soil. Depending on the applications and design loads, there are various raft foundation types. The choice of raft foundation type is influenced by a number of variables, including bearing capacity, loads, site circumstances, etc.… Read More Raft foundation types and features
The penetration test for bitumen is a laboratory method for grading bitumen based on its hardness. In this test, the amount of penetrating a specific needle into the bitumen is measured.
More than 85% of bitumen is used in road construction. Weather condition affects on bitumen binder. In cold weather, bitumen becomes hard, and the possibility of cracking increases. On the other hand, hot weather causes bitumen becomes soft and sticky.… Read More Penetration Test for Bitumen – Significance and Procedure
Culverts are tunnel structures constructed beneath rail tracks or roadways to facilitate cross drainage or to convey electrical cables from one side to the other. It is completely encircled by ground or soil. Pipe, box, and arch culverts are the most common types deployed under roadways and railroads.… Read More Types of Culverts – Culverts meaning and Culvert types Explained
Types of false ceilings, materials to be used and their selection are one of the most difficult challenges anyone should face when planning a new structure or restoring an existing one. The false ceiling materials should be durable and meet the requirements of the application locations. Ceiling systems are of numerous types for home interiors… Read More Types of false ceilings – 7 ultimate ceiling types
The ozone layer is an area of the earth’s stratosphere that contains high levels of ozone (O3) and protects the planet from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays. It can absorb roughly 97-99 percent of the sun’s damaging UV radiation, which otherwise can kill life on the Earth. … Read More The Ozone Layer Depletion – Effects and Causes
The environmental Laws of India help to ensure the protection of the environment and other natural resources and to prevent pollution. In this blog, we will discuss the major Environmental Laws of India and their provisions. Let’s begin with the background of the formation of Environmental Laws and the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF).… Read More Environmental Laws of India – A Complete Guide
Biomass Energy is hailed as a renewable source of energy and a method for sustainable waste disposal. In this blog, I will show you the definition of biomass energy, its feedstock, its advantages, disadvantages, and the various methods available for its thermal conversion… Read More Biomass Energy – Definition, Advantages and Future
The Construction drawings for a house are the most important document in home-building. It contains instructions on how to construct your new house or add-on, which contractors to hire, and how they should do their job.… Read More A Comprehensive Guide To Construction Drawings For Your Building
Fuel cells are electrochemical cells that use a pair of redox reactions to transform the chemical energy of a fuel (typically hydrogen) and an oxidising agent (usually oxygen) into electricity. It finds various applications, including transportation, industrial/commercial/residential structures, and long-term grid energy storage in reversible systems.
… Read More Fuel Cells- Definition, Advantages and Future
Tidal Energy available worldwide adds up to nearly 3,000 gigawatts. The Romans were the first to think of tapping into this vast energy reserve and using tidal energy to turn wheels and grind grains. In comparison to wind and solar energy, tidal energy has struggled to gain widespread acceptance.… Read More Tidal Energy – Definition, Advantages and Future
Glass is one of the most innovative human inventions having unique properties. The flexibility of usage of glass in architectural applications like doors, windows, facades, etc. makes it one of the popularly used products in the construction sector.… Read More Types of glass – Application and advantages
Wind energy or wind power refers to the process of using the wind to generate mechanical or electrical power. This mechanical energy can be employed for specialized purposes such as pumping water or it can be converted to electricity using a generator. A wind farm is a collection of wind turbines that are all located in the same area. A huge wind farm can include hundreds of separate wind turbines spread out over a vast region.… Read More Wind Energy: Definition, Advantages, and Future
Brick is one of the most popular construction material used since ancient times. Normal bricks tend to crack at high temperatures and are not preferred for high-temperature areas. In such conditions, conventional bricks are often replaced by Refractory bricks.… Read More Refractory Bricks – Properties and Types
Sustainable Waste Management has become the need of the hour with the ever-increasing amount of garbage that humans generate. According to the United Nations, around 11.2 billion tonnes of solid garbage are collected worldwide, with humans accounting for nearly all of it. As a result, we must devise plans for long-term sustainable waste management.… Read More Sustainable Waste Management – Full Details
Indoor plants not only look good but also make you feel good. Bringing plants into your home is not just aesthetically pleasing, but provides significant health advantages as well! Numerous studies show that indoor plants make you healthier and happier, providing both psychological and physical health advantages.… Read More Top 10 Indoor Plants and their Benefits – Must Read
Aeroponics is one of the major techniques in indoor farming which is becoming popular these days due to greater yields and the ability to control the growing environment. Greenhouse and vertical farming are the two main types of indoor farming.… Read More Aeroponics – Process, Types, Advantages – Full Details
Types of levelling – Leveling is a branch of surveying that deals with computing and determining the relative heights between different points with respect to the datum. The purpose of leveling is for determining the elevation of a point and establishing the same at a given elevation. Moreover leveling deals with the computation of measurements in the vertical plane. There are different types of leveling in Surveying. In this article, we will discuss the purpose and types of leveling.… Read More Types of Levelling – Uses and advantages
Landfills are a regular occurrence all over the world, owing to the rising volume of trash generated by our homes, schools, offices, hospitals, and markets. The rising number of landfills around the world is largely due to increased urbanization and population growth rates.… Read More Landfills – Causes, Operation and Life Cycle- Everything you should know
Types of doors commonly used in residential, commercial, and industrial construction depend on the application area, durability required, the purpose of the door, etc.A door is a movable barrier or mechanism for opening and closing an entranceway or a building/room. The purpose of the door in this urban environment is security and privacy. Apart from security, safety, and privacy, an aspect of art, beauty, and elegance is associated with it. The entrance door acts as a warm welcome to the areas inside.… Read More Types of doors – Top 7 door types explained
Self driving cars have become a reality in the past five years, and is commercially available now. A car that would drive on its own was something beyond imagination a few decades back. Thanks to technological development, self driving cars are becoming a reality.… Read More Self driving cars – Benefits, Working and Challenges – Full details
Total station is used for computing slant distances, horizontal and vertical angles, elevations in topographic and geodetic works, tacheometric surveys, etc. The total station is a pre-eminent contribution to modern surveying and hence the equipment is designed for speed, range, and accuracy.… Read More Total station in surveying– Working Principle of Total station
Road pavement structure: Road is the most important structure that decides the economic growth of a country. The road structure to be constructed based on the traffic requirements, climatic conditions of the area, terrain, etc. The road structure has to withstand abrasion loads and climatic and terrain conditions without failure. This article is about the components of a flexible pavement structure.… Read More Road Pavement Layers – Components and Functions
Floating houses are always an attraction to those who cares for the aesthetics and beauty of their residence. More than anything, they have this advantage to sustain from flood. Floating houses are similar in concept and normally defined those houses which are constructed on water in a way that the load of the structure is equal or less than the uplift force of the water which helps in floating the house on water.… Read More Floating House- 2 Types of Floating Houses & Amazing Examples
Major benefits, applications, disadvantages of intelligent transportation system along with figures that explains each of them are shown
… Read More Applications of Intelligent transportation system- everything you want to know
Final year civil engineering projects -major topics in structural, hydraulics, environmental, geo-technical and transportation engineering. – Importance of final year projects are, 1.They open the window to your interest after graduation 2. You get to participate in a team and improve leadership skills etc. And things to consider before you start doing the team project… Read More Final year Civil Engineering Projects Topic – 100 sample topics.
What is principle of surveying? To understand the importance of the principle of surveying, we should first know the purpose of carrying out surveying. It is to make measurements of objects on, above, or beneath the ground to show their relative positions.
1. Working from whole to part 2. Taking extra care in fixing new control points
… Read More Principle of surveying-First and Second Survey Principle