# Development length formula as per IS 456

Development length is an essential concept in civil engineering that refers to the length of reinforcement required to transfer the force from the steel reinforcement to the surrounding concrete. It is crucial in ensuring that the reinforcement is effectively bonded to the concrete to resist the applied forces. “The development length depends on several factors, including the diameter of the bar and the strength of the concrete. “Another factor that affects the development length is the bond strength between the steel reinforcement and the surrounding concrete.”

Properly understanding development length is essential for designing reinforced concrete structures to ensure their safety and stability. Engineers calculate the development length to ensure that the reinforcement will provide the intended strength and reinforcement to the structure. “Insufficient development length can cause the reinforcement to fail to transfer forces to the concrete effectively. This can ultimately lead to structural failure.”

## What is the development length?

To develop the full tensile strength of the reinforcement, one must embed the reinforcement in concrete for a minimum length known as the development length. This is necessary to ensure that the reinforcement can resist the applied loads. This should happen without pulling out of the concrete or causing concrete failure.

Either pull-out or splitting failure modes typically control the length. In pull-out failure, the force applied to the reinforcement exceeds the pull-out strength of the concrete. This generally causes the reinforcement to pull out of the concrete. In splitting failure, the force applied to the reinforcement causes the concrete to crack and split. This can lead to the failure of the reinforcement.

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## Significance and functions

This is a critical concept in reinforced concrete structures that ensures the effective transfer of forces and prevents premature failure. It is important for the safety and stability of structures and is a crucial factor in their design and construction. The main function is as follows.

### Transfer of applied forces

Ensuring effective bonding of the steel reinforcement to the surrounding concrete is the purpose of the Development length in reinforced concrete structures. This allows it to transfer the applied forces to the concrete.

### Prevents structural failure:

Basically, the proper bonding of the reinforcement to the concrete prevents premature failure of the structure. This could otherwise result in catastrophic consequences.

### Important for design

Properly understanding Develop length is critical for designing reinforced concrete structures. Engineers must calculate the length to ensure that the reinforcement provides the intended strength and reinforcement to the structure.

Basically, an insufficient development length can lead to the reinforcement not being able to transfer the forces to the concrete effectively. However, this results in premature failure and instability.

### Structural safety and stability

Generally, this is crucial for the safety and stability of reinforced concrete structures. The failure to effectively bond the reinforcement to the concrete would result in the inability to transfer the applied forces. However, this can lead to structural failure.

## Factors determining Development strength

Several factors influence the required development length to fully develop the tensile strength of reinforcement in concrete, including

• Reinforcement properties: The strength and diameter of the reinforcement significantly impact the required development length. Generally, high-strength reinforcement with a larger diameter will require a longer D length to develop its full strength.
• Concrete properties: The strength, stiffness, and thickness of the concrete member where we place the reinforcement are crucial factors. However, a higher concrete strength requires a longer d length, while a thicker concrete section may require a shorter length.
• Bond strength: The bond strength between the reinforcement and concrete is critical in determining the development length. However, the bond strength depends on various factors. This includes the surface condition of the reinforcement, the degree of deformation, and the quality of the concrete surface.
• Environmental conditions: Environmental factors such as humidity, temperature, and exposure to corrosive agents can affect the bond strength between the reinforcement and concrete. In such cases, we may require a more extended development length.
• Load conditions: The type, magnitude, and direction of the load applied to the reinforcement significantly influence the development length required. Generally, Higher loads require a longer D length to prevent the reinforcement from pulling out of the concrete.
• Design codes and standards: Design codes and standards typically provide guidelines for determining the minimum development length required for different types of reinforcement and loading conditions. However, these guidelines may vary depending on the specific code or standard used.

## Development length as per IS 456

Basically, Clause 26.2.1 of the Indian code for the design of reinforced concrete structures (IS 456:2000) provides the formula to calculate the development length of reinforcement bars in tension. Basically, we require the length of the reinforcement bar to transfer the stresses between the reinforcement and the surrounding concrete.

The formula for calculating the D length (Ld) of a reinforcement bar with a diameter of D, embedded in concrete with a grade of M, and subject to tension, is as follows:

Ld = (0.87 fy A / 4τ_bd) + (0.2 √fc) …Equation 1

where:

• fy is the characteristic strength of the reinforcement in N/mm²
• A is the area of the reinforcement in mm²
• τ_bd is the bond stress between the reinforcement and the surrounding concrete in N/mm²
• fc is the characteristic compressive strength of concrete in N/mm²

The first term in Equation 1 represents the basic development length, which is the minimum length required for the reinforcement to fully develop its strength. The second term represents the additional development length due to the curvature of the bar.

It is worth noting that the code also provides alternative methods for calculation, such as the empirical equations given in Table 5 of the code. However, Equation 1 is the most widely used method for calculating the development length in India.

It is important to note that these calculations are based on certain assumptions and simplifications, and the actual development length required may vary based on the specific design requirements and site conditions.

## Development length as per IS 456 for columns, footings and beams

The dev. length of rebars is the minimum length required for the effective transfer of forces from the steel reinforcement to the surrounding concrete. However this ensures that the reinforcement is properly bonded to the concrete, preventing premature failure of the structure.

## Development length as per codes

The development length of a reinforcing bar, or rebar, is the minimum length of the bar that must be embedded or overlapped with concrete to ensure proper transfer of stresses between the concrete and steel. This is a critical design parameter, and it is determined based on various factors such as the strength of the rebar, the strength of the concrete, and the design requirements of the structure.

Here are the formulas as per some commonly used codes:

### ACI 318-19 (American Concrete Institute)

Ld = [(φ x Fy x As) / (4 x Fc’^(0.5))] x (1.3 for deformed bars, 1.7 for plain bars)

where: Ld = development length in inches

φ = strength reduction factor (0.7 for deformed bars, 0.8 for plain bars)

Fy = yield strength of rebar in ksi

As = area of rebar in square inches

Fc’ = specified compressive strength of concrete in psi

### BS 8110-1:1997 (British Standard)

Ld = [(1.2 x σst x As) / (0.87 x Fy x (1 + (200/d))^(0.5))] x (1.4 for deformed bars, 1.7 for plain bars)

where: Ld = development length in mm

σst = stress in rebar at yield in N/mm2

As = area of rebar in mm2 Fy = characteristic yield strength of rebar in N/mm2 d = diameter of rebar in mm

IS 456:2000 (Indian Standard)Ld = [(0.87 x fy x As) / (4 x τbd x fck^(0.5))] x (1.2 for deformed bars, 1.6 for plain bars)

where: Ld = development length in mm

fy = characteristic strength of rebar in N/mm2

As = area of rebar in mm2 τbd = design bond stress in N/mm2

fck = characteristic compressive strength of concrete in N/mm2

It is important to note that the development length calculation may vary based on the specific requirements of the structure, and it is recommended to consult the appropriate code for accurate and up-to-date information.

# All cement price list today 2023 – Cement Price per bag today

All cement price list today is the most important update every construction engineer and civil engineering construction firm should be familiar with. Cement is the most significant and widely used construction material which forms an integral part of any structure. Cement is the major ingredient of concrete and mortar and the structural stability and life of a structure or building depend on the cement quality.

## Significance of knowing the price of cement today

Cement is widely available on the market. Therefore, one needs to be aware of cement’s pricing before purchasing. Cement accounts for almost 20% of total construction costs. Cement is therefore one of the most expensive construction materials. One must therefore be familiar with the most recent cement price list rates that are offered on the market. Generally, cement is utilised for everything from a building’s foundation to its final touches. Because cement prices play such a significant effect on construction costs, it is necessary to consider them when making purchases.

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## Factors affecting the cement prices

Also, the price of each cement varies according to its quality. Yet, different types of cement are utilised in different locations. The following variables influence cement pricing:

• Costs of Raw Materials: The basic raw materials for cement manufacture are limestone and clay, and their prices might fluctuate based on supply and demand situations in their respective markets.
• Energy Costs: The cost of energy, such as the price of fuel and electricity, can impact cement’s cost.
• Transportation Costs: The expense involved in transporting raw materials to the manufacturing plant, as well as the cost of delivering the final product to market, can influence cement prices.
• Production Costs: The cost of production can be influenced by factors such as the cost of labour, the efficiency of the manufacturing process, and the level of competition in the market.
• Government Regulations: Government rules, such as taxes, import duties, and environmental regulations, can also have an impact on the price of cement.
• Economic Factors: Generally, economic factors such as inflation, exchange rates, and overall economic growth can all have an impact on cement prices.
• Market Demand: The level of demand for cement in a particular market can also impact its price. However, during periods of high demand, prices may be higher, while during periods of low demand, prices may be lower.
• Competition: The level of competition in the cement market can also influence prices. If there is a high level of competition, companies may be pressured to lower their prices in order to remain competitive.

## Uses of Cement

Cement is an essential element in the construction industry. It is needed to make concrete and mortar. Cement is manufactured by heating a mixture of limestone and clay to form a powder. The powder, when mixed with water, makes a paste that sets and hardens. Some of the most common applications for cement are:

• Cement is used in the manufacture of concrete. Concrete is the major building material for foundations, walls, bridges, and roadways.
• Masonry work: For laying bricks and stone, cement is used as binding material
• Plastering: Cement is widely used in the production of plaster. Plaster is used to coat the interior and exterior walls and ceilings of buildings.
• Cement can be used as a base material in the manufacture of floor screeds, terrazzo, and other flooring products.
• Dams: It is used in the production of concrete for dams, which are structures designed to retain water.
• Pipelines: Other subsurface constructions, including pipelines, are made of cement.

In summary, cement is an essential material in the construction industry and is used for a wide range of purposes, from building construction to flooring, and from masonry work to making pipes.

## Top cement companies of India with the latest price list

Here is a list of the top cement companies in India along with their latest price list:

1. UltraTech Cement Ltd. – UltraTech Cement is the largest manufacturer of cement in India and one of the world’s leading suppliers of cement and clinker. As of February 2023, the latest price of UltraTech Cement is Rs. 350 – 400 per bag
2. Ambuja Cements Ltd. – Ambuja Cements is one of the leading cement companies in India. Ambuja cement is best known for its sustainable practices and use of advanced technology. As of February 2023, the latest price of Ambuja Cement is Rs. 330 -400 per bag
3. ACC Ltd. – ACC is one of the largest cement companies in India. ACC has a strong presence in the country’s western and southern regions. As of February 2023, the latest price of ACC Cement is Rs. 330 to 450 kg bag.
4. Shree Cement Ltd. – Shree Cement is a leading cement company in India. We know that Shree cement is known for its high-quality products and innovative business practices. As of February 2023, the latest price of Shree Cement is Rs. 300 – 375 per 50 kg bag.

Please note that these prices may vary based on location and market conditions.

## Conclusion

Cement prices play an important part in the cost of every structure. Everyone related to the civil engineering and the construction industry should be familiar with cement prices. Hence it is required to be updated with cement prices regularly. Top brands are available in almost every part of the country.

# Sheet pile -Sheet piling types, sheet piling advantages

A sheet pile is a type of driven pile that uses sections of sheet materials with interlocking edges. We generally install Sheet piles for lateral earth retention, excavation support, and shoreline protection operations. They are typically made of steel, but can also be made of vinyl, wood, or aluminium. Sheet piles are installed in sequence to the design depth along the excavation perimeter or seawall alignment. The interlocking sheet piles provide a wall for permanent or temporary lateral earth support with little groundwater inflow. We use Anchors strategically to provide lateral support Anchors.

We frequently use Sheet piles for seawalls, retaining walls, land reclamation, and underground constructions. Underground constructions include parking garages, and basements, in marine locations for riverbank protection, seawalls, cofferdams, and so on.

## Sheet piling method

Sheet piles can be temporary or permanent. Permanent steel sheet pile design demands a long service life. Often we install Sheet piles using vibratory hammers. If the earth is too hard or dense, we perform the installation with an impact hammer. Hot-rolling and cold-forming are the two major methods for creating sheet piles. Manufacturing of Hot rolled piles takes place at high temperatures, and the interlocks appear to be stronger and more durable.

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### Micropiles – Types, Advantages,Installation Method

We install Sheet piles by driving them into the ground with an impact hammer or vibratory driver and connect them to one another by a number of interlocking mechanisms. This includes tongue-and-groove, hook-and-grip, and clutch-bolt connections. Sheet piles, once erected, form a continuous barrier that resists lateral pressure from soil or water, avoiding soil erosion, landslides, and other soil failures.

## Sheet piles – Applications

Piles find frequent utilisation in the following construction projects:

### Retaining walls

Sheet piles help to construct retaining walls that hold back soil or water while also providing lateral support for excavations.

### Coastal protection:

Sheet piling can protect coastal areas from erosion, waves, and storm surges. They can also be used to construct breakwaters and jetties.

### Cofferdams:

We use Sheet piles to build cofferdams, which are transient obstructions in water to facilitate the construction of piers, bridges, or other water-based constructions.

### Underground structures

We use Sheet piles to construct underground constructions such as basements or underground parking garages. They support the lateral structure and restrict soil or water intrusion.

Sheet piles have various advantages, including their versatility, ease of installation, and durability. Moreover, they offer an affordable option for projects that need lateral earth support. However, adequate design and installation are essential for guaranteeing the sheet pile wall’s stability and safety.

Sheet piles provide several advantages in construction projects that require lateral earth support. Following are some of the key benefits of sheet piles:

1. Versatility: Sheet piles find applications in a variety of construction projects, including retaining walls, shoreline protection, cofferdams, and underground structures.
2. Speed of installation: We can install Sheet piles quickly and efficiently using impact hammers or vibratory drivers, which can reduce project timelines and construction costs.
3. Durability: Since the material of construction Sheet piles is steel or other durable materials that can withstand harsh environmental conditions, including exposure to water, corrosion, and extreme temperatures, they are highly durable.
4. Cost-effectiveness: Sheet piles generally prove to be a more affordable alternative to other types of foundation systems for projects requiring lateral earth support since they need less excavation and backfilling.
5. Minimal disturbance: Sheet pile installation creates minimal disturbance to the surrounding soil and structures since we drive the piles into the ground without the need for excavation or other site preparation.
6. Reusability: Sheet piles offer easy removal and reuse in other projects, making them a sustainable and eco-friendly alternative.
7. We use Sheet piles for temporary and permanent structures and are available in a wide range of lengths, sizes and steel options.
8. We can install Sheet piles rapidly using silent and vibration-free methods. The installation is easier and faster than secant walls.
9. We can construct Cofferdams in almost any desired shape. Provide a close-fitting joint to form an effective water seal. Joints are designed to withstand the high pressure necessary for them to be placed in place. A little maintenance is needed above and underwater

## Sheet piling types

Sheet piles are broadly classified as follows based on the material used for driving.

• Steel sheet pile
• Vinyl sheet pile
• Wooden sheet pile
• Concrete sheet pile
• Composite sheet piles
• Cellular sheet pile
• Cellular sheet pile
• Cold-formed sheet pile

### Steel Sheet piles

Steel sheet piles are long, thin sections of steel that are driven into the ground to construct a retaining wall or a barrier. The most popular material for sheet piles is steel since we can lengthen it either by welding or bolting and has great water tightness as well as good resistance to severe driving stresses. They find extensive applications in civil engineering and construction projects to provide structural support for excavations, bridges, highways, and other structures.

Steel sheet piles are primarily made of hot-rolled steel and are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. We can link them together to form a continuous wall that acts as a strong barrier against the soil or water pressure. Steel sheet piles should endure heavy loads and give structural stability. Corrosion prevention techniques including coating and cathodic protection help increase the durability of steel sheet pile.

We frequently use Steel sheet piles in foundation work and deep excavations because they offer high resistance to lateral stresses and enable quick and simple installation. They are an eco-friendly option for temporary constructions because we can recycle them.

Overall, steel sheet piles are a versatile and cost-effective solution for a wide range of civil engineering and construction projects.

There are four basic forms of steel sheet piles, Normal sections, Straight web sections, Box sections and Composite sections.

### Vinyl sheet pile

A vinyl sheet pile is a form of plastic sheet pile that finds applications in civil engineering and construction projects for a variety of purposes such as seawalls, bulkheads, flood walls, and retaining walls. Vinyl sheet pile primarily comprises polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a lightweight and long-lasting polymer that is resistant to corrosion, chemicals, and weathering. Because of its minimal maintenance requirements, simplicity of installation, and long-term durability, vinyl sheet pile is becoming more and more common in construction projects. Vinyl sheet pile, unlike traditional materials such as wood, steel, or concrete, does not require frequent maintenance or coating, making them a more cost-effective alternative in the long run.

Vinyl sheet pile is also environmentally friendly because it is reusable and does not leak dangerous chemicals into the soil or water. Because of its lightweight qualities, it is simple to transport and install, necessitating minimal use of heavy machinery and labour. Overall, vinyl sheet pile is a versatile and cost-effective solution for a variety of construction and civil engineering projects. Its durability, low maintenance requirements, and environmental benefits make it an appealing choice for contractors and engineers.

An effective alternative to steel sheet piling for bulkheads, seawalls and cutoff walls. They are also superior to alternative materials like concrete and wood. The main advantage of vinyl sheet piles is the superior corrosion resistance when exposed to seawater, where no oxidation occurs.

Vinyl sheet piles are lightweight and resistant to corrosion and chemical damage. They are often used in projects where environmental impact is a concern.

### Wooden sheet pile

A wooden sheet pile is a type of retaining system comprising timber planks or boards. We commonly employ them in construction and civil engineering projects with a requirement for a retaining wall, either temporary or permanent. Hardwood sheet piles are a more environmentally friendly and long-lasting alternative to steel or concrete sheet piles. and they are widely utilised in places where environmental impact is a concern. In excavation work, we utilise them for braced sheeting and temporary structures. It must have some sort of preservative treatment for its utilisation in permanent structures above the water table. Even after treatment with a preservative, a timber sheet pile has limited life. Timber sheet piles are bonded using tongue and groove connections.

### Features of wooden piles

Timber piles are not suitable in strata that contain gravel and boulders. Hardwood sheet piles are ideal for shallow excavations and we frequently utilise them in building projects where noise and vibration are a concern. They are lightweight and easy to handle, making them a popular choice for jobs requiring speedy installation. In comparison to other retaining wall materials, wooden sheet piles are also more affordable. Yet, there are significant drawbacks to using hardwood sheet piles. They are not as robust as steel or concrete sheet piles and require frequent maintenance to prevent rot and insect infestation. They may also be prone to warping and deformation if exposed to dampness for a lengthy period of time.

Hardwood sheet piles may not be suited for usage in places with high water tables or salinity in the soil, as these variables might accelerate the decomposition of the timber. Overall, hardwood sheet piles are an efficient and environmentally friendly option for small-scale building projects and temporary retaining walls. Yet, their durability and susceptibility to deterioration and warping make them unsuitable for long-term or large-scale applications.

### Concrete sheet pile

Concrete sheet piles are retaining walls constructed from precast reinforced concrete sections. We frequently employ them in civil engineering and building projects with a requirement for long-term retaining structures.

We must handle and drive the piles carefully, and provide the necessary reinforcement. The most common application of Concrete sheet pile is in deep excavations where soil conditions are unfavourable and we require lateral support. They are impermeable and can withstand hydrostatic pressure, making them excellent for usage in places with high water tables. We provide a capping to the heads of the piles by casting a capping beam, while we cut the toes with an oblique face to make driving and interlocking easier. They are relatively heavy and thick, and while driving, they displace significant amounts of the earth.

The driving resistance rises as a result of the considerable volume displacement. Concrete sheet piles are also resistant to weathering, corrosion, and erosion, making them a durable solution under extreme conditions. Concrete sheet piles are available in a range of dimensions and we can interlock them to create a continuous wall. We can place them in a variety of ways, including driving, vibrating, and pushing. The method of installation depends on the accessibility to the site, the depth of the installation, the state of the soil etc.

Concrete sheet piles are a strong and long-lasting alternative, but their installation may be more costly and time-consuming than that of other retaining wall materials. However, installing them requires large machinery, which can be difficult in places with restricted access or space. Overall, concrete sheet piles are a viable option for permanent retaining walls in deep excavations and severe soil conditions. They are a preferred option for projects involving coastal protection and flood control due to their strength and resistance to water and erosion.

### Aluminium sheet piles

Aluminium sheet piles are lightweight, strong, and corrosion-resistant, making them an ideal choice for projects that require a lightweight and durable material.

### Composite sheet piles

We manufacture Composite sheet piles from a combination of materials, such as steel and concrete, to provide additional strength and durability. They often find applications in projects that require high load-bearing capacity.

### Cellular sheet pile

We usually design Cellular sheet pile with hollow sections that allow for increased strength and load-bearing capacity. They find application in projects that requires a high degree of lateral support.

### Cold-formed sheet piles

Cold-formed sheet piles are made by bending steel sheets into a desired shape. They find application in projects requiring lower strength and load-bearing capacity.

## Conclusion

Each type of sheet pile has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of material and design will depend on the specific requirements of the project. Proper design and installation are essential to ensure the stability and safety of the sheet pile wall, and consultation with an experienced engineer is recommended before selecting a specific type of sheet pile for a project.

# Unit weight of steel bars – How to calculate?

Calculating the unit weight of steel bars with various diameters is crucial when creating a schedule for bar bending. The total weight of steel bars/TMT bars weight required for the project’s construction can be calculated once we know the unit weight of steel.

Steel is the most commonly used structural material. Steel’s basic components include metallic iron, non-metallic carbon, and minor amounts of nickel, silicon, manganese, chromium, and copper, among others. High tensile strength makes it a popular construction material for civil engineering projects. Steel reinforcement bars, often known as rebar, are placed in concrete members to enhance their tensile strength. As we all know, steel is utilised to construct structural members such as columns, beamsfootingsfoundations, and building slabs. Steel bars of various sizes are supplied by the manufacturer, with lengths of 12 metres or 40 feet.

## Why Unit Weight of steel bars Calculation is Important?

It is essential to comprehend the weight of steel bars since we estimate them as 100 metres 20 mm bar, 100 feet 16mm bar, and so on (is the sign for diameter). Steel bar manufacturers, on the other hand, will not interpret this notation and will measure the steel bars in weight. So we have to order them in kilogrammes, quintals, or tonnes. This article will go through how to use the steel weight formula to determine the steel bar’s weight.

## How to calculate the steel bar weight/ TMT bars weight?

Steel bar unit weight is the weight of steel per unit volume. Its SI unit is kg/m3. The unit weight of steel is typically measured as follows

• Kilogrammes per cubic metre (7850 kg/m3),
• Kilo Newton per cubic metre (78.5 kN/m3),
• Grams per cubic centimetre (7.85 g/cm3).

## Calculation of weight of steel bars per Running Meter

The length of the rod L = 1 meter.

Steel has a density of 7850 kg/m3.

Let us see how the formula calculates the weight of steel bars.

Area of steel rod (Circular shape) = πror πD2/4

Hence the wt of steel bar formula

= Area of steel x Density of steel x Length of steel

Where

Area of steel = πD2/4

The density of steel = 7850 kg / m3

Length of steel = 1 mtr

Diameter of steel = D mm

### Weight of steel per Meter

= πD2/4 x 7850 x 1m = 3.14 x (D2 / 4) x 7850 x 1m

In this equation,

the Diameter is in mm and the Density (Unit Weight) is in m3

Let us convert the Diameter in mm2 to m as below

1 mm = 1/1000 m , 1 mm2 = 1/(1000)2 mm2

= 3.14 x (D2 /4 ) X 1/(1000) 2 X 7850 X 1

Weight of steel bars formula= D2 x 6162.5 x 1/(1000)2

= D2 x 1/(0.006162)-1

= D2 / 162.28

For calculation purposes, we used to take D2/162

Weight of steel rod per Running meter = D2/162 where D is the diameter of steel rod in mm

For a 12 mm dia rod,

D = 12 mm

Weight per meter = 12 x 12 /162 = 0.889 kg per rmt or meter length or unit length

If you want to know the steel weight per foot. 1 metre = 3.281 ft. Just multiply the same.

### Weight of steel per foot

1 metre = 3.281 ft. Just multiply the same.

= D2/162 x 3.281 = D2 / 533

### Weight of steel bars/TMT bars weight per meter

Let us have an idea about the unit weight of common diameters of reinforcement steel used in civil engineering construction.

# Difference between Built up Area, Carpet area, Plinth Area

You may run into terminology like “carpet area,” “built-up area,” and “super built-up area” if you’re considering purchasing a home. There are various types of areas in a building’s floor plan. Reading a floor plan is an important skill for a civil engineer to have. These are various methods of describing a property’s area. In this article, we will see about the different types of areas.

1. Types of areas in Building Construction

## Types of areas in Building Construction

We should be informed with the following building construction practises before making home buying plans. Following are the terminologies usually followed in dealing with building construction.

• Plot area
• Built-up area or Plinth area
• Carpet area
• Setback area
• Super built-up area

Before getting into these terms first we have to know what is RERA

### Real Estate Regulation and Development Act, 2016, (RERA)

The Real Estate Regulation and Development Act, 2016, (RERA) is an act established by the Indian parliament. The main objective of RERA is to give prompt information between the buyers and sellers. This increases transparency and reduces the chance of cheating.

There are three different ways to calculate the area of the property.

• In terms of the Carpet area
• In terms of Built-up area
• In terms of Super built-up area

While buying a property buyer should pay for the area which is usable. RERA provides safety of money, buyer protection and balanced agreement.

### Plot area (Areas of building)

The plot area includes the complete area which you own. This area comes under the fencing.

### Carpet area (Areas of building)

Carpet area is a term which the real estate agent uses the most. It is the area of the building which can be covered by using carpet. It is also called a net usable floor area.

Carpet Area = Total floor area – Area of internal/external walls

But as per RERA Carpet area = Total Floor area – Area of external walls

According to RERA flats should be sold on the basis of carpet area. The carpet area as per RERA is the area of usable spaces such as bedrooms, kitchen, bathroom, toilet etc. It also includes an area covered by internal partition walls. It excludes areas such as Balcony, utility areas, external walls area, open terrace area, lift, lobby, staircase etc. Mostly carpet area is 70% of its built-up area.

### Plinth area

The plinth area is also known as the Built-up area. It is the total area of the building within the plot area. It is mostly 30% of the total plot area.

Built-up Area = carpet area + Area of walls

It includes living room, bedrooms, utility, bathroom, wall thickness, kitchen, balcony closed staircases etc. and excludes open terrace area, lift, open staircase, swimming pool etc. It is 10 to 15 % more than the carpet area.

### Super built-up area

Super built-up area was used to measure the area of property before the RERA act came into existence. Because the super built-up area lowers the rate per square foot. Saleable area is another name of super built-up area.

Super Built-Up Area = Setback area+Built-up Area+20% of common area

Super built-up area includes common areas like swimming pool, clubhouses, lobby, staircase, Lift, etc. and the built-up area of the flat.

### Set back area

Set back area is the space between the boundary and the building. It is the minimum open space necessary around the building. As per the municipal regulation a specific margin should be provided between building and road.

Setback area = Built-up Area – Plot area

This provides sufficient ventilation, ease in vehicle movement and protection from other entities

# Types of doors – Top 7 door types explained

Types of doors commonly used in residential, commercial, and industrial construction depend on the application area, durability required, the purpose of the door, etc.

What is a door?

A door is a movable barrier or mechanism for opening and closing an entranceway or a building/room. The purpose of the door in this urban environment is security and privacy. Apart from security, safety, and privacy, an aspect of art, beauty, and elegance is associated with it. The entrance door acts as a warm welcome to the areas inside.

## Classification of doors in Civil Engineering

Doors come in a number of types. The selection of a door type, on the other hand, is determined by the location, purpose, aesthetic needs, material availability, security, and privacy. Doors types are typically classified as follows.

• Location based
• Based on material
• Based on operation mechanism

### Types of doors in civil engineering– location based

The doors types are classified as follows

• Exterior Doors
• Interior Doors

#### Exterior door

An outside door is one that allows entry to a building/house. An outside door’s main function is to safeguard the building as well as the security and privacy of the occupants of the building. While selecting an exterior door, style, colours, finishes, and aesthetic looks to match the architectural theme must be considered.

#### Interior door

Interior doors provide access to interior spaces like bed, kitchen, special functional rooms, toilets, etc. However, choice of material and type depends on the nature of privacy, security, and purpose of the room. Interior doors used to be lighter than exterior doors.

### Types of Doors – Based on Materials

The door choice is confirmed based on the material to be used. For that, we should have a better idea of the readily available, durable, and aesthetically matching materials. Following are the popular choices of doors based on materials used in construction nowadays.

• Wooden Doors
• Glass Door
• Metal Door
• Flush Door
• PVC door
• Aluminium Door
• UPVC door

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#### Wooden Door/Timber Door

Wooden doors types are the most common and premium choice for both external and internal doors. They are the preferred choice due to their classy and elegant looks, high durability, and ability to match any architecture theme. Moreover, they are aesthetically pleasing and are widely available on a reasonable budget. Wooden doors can be custom-made for any functional requirements and design. They are the oldest material used and never lose their sheen even after long years.

• Easily available
• Easy working
• Best material for front doors due to its high durability.
• Used for any functional requirement.
• Wooden doors are mostly polished rather than painted for exposing the natural grain looks.
• Simple and easy installation.
• Carving works are easily done on wooden doors.
• Wooden doors are soundproof, got high thermal insulation capabilities and are strong.
##### Demerits of wooden doors

Even though wooden doors are superior materials they have their demerits also. However, needs periodic maintenance to retain the sheen and looks.

• Needs periodic maintenance to retain the sheen and looks.
• Wooden doors on long exposure to moisture may deteriorate.
• Prone to termite attacks.
• May sags

#### Glass Doors

Glass doors are for areas where the availability of natural light and open feeling is the main functional requirement. They are mainly used in areas where privacy is not a prime factor-like back yard, balcony doors, cabin doors, etc.

Glass doors are elegant and give an enhanced look to the house. However, the main problem with glass doors is the safety and privacy factor and the possibility of glass breaking. The glass breaking problem is managed by using small glass pieces for front doors. The glass should be safety glass or toughened glass.

#### Metal Doors

Steel is one of the preferred and favorite alternatives to wood for both external and internal doors. Mild steel or Galvanized steel is used for the manufacturing of doors. These doors are manufactured in solid and hollow types and are a safer, durable, and stronger option when compared to wooden doors.

Steel door frames are usually combined with wooden, PVC, steel, and flush door shutters. Steel door frames are manufactured by pressing steel sheets, angles, channels, etc. Holdfasts and hinges are welded to the steel frames.
Steel frames are popular and are used for residences, factories, industrial buildings, etc. They are economical than conventional wooden frames.

Metal door shutters are manufactured from high-quality cold-rolled Mild Steel (MS) sheets, with a steel face and rock wool or foam insulation. Steel is a more economical and stronger option compared to other materials even though steel may not look as attractive as wooden or glass doors.
Metal doors are available in different tones and shades. They are durable, have minimal maintenance, and provide excellent security.

#### Types of Doors – Flush Doors

The flush door is made of a timber frame covered with plywood from both sides. However, the hollow core is filled with rectangular blocks of softwood just like block boards. Flush door surface finished with decorative finish by fixing veneers. The flush door is usually laminated or veneered to match the architectural themes. These doors are usually hinged type and have one side opening only. The frame can be of wooden, PVC, or steel.
Flush doors got a seamless look and are economical, look elegant, and are easily available in the market.

While providing these doors for toilets, baths; the inner face of the door should be covered with aluminum sheets to protect against water.

#### PVC Doors

PVC or polyvinyl chloride doors are a very popular choice for doors. They are available in a range of colors and styles. Furthermore these doors have high resilience, are anti-destructive, termite-proof, moisture-resistant, lightweight, etc. As a result they are best suited for areas with moisture chances like bathroom areas.
Polyvinyl doors come in a variety of designs types. colors, style and looks beautiful. Similarly these doors do not corrode like steel or disintegrate like wood and do not need much maintenance.
They are very simple and easy to install and are scratch-proof. These doors are not preferred for front doors due to their lightweight characters and inability to resist environmental conditions. These doors are cost-effective when compared to wooden and metal doors.

#### Types of Doors – UPVC Doors

uPVC stands for Unplasticised Polyvinyl Chloride. It is a form of plastic that is hard and inflexible, also known as rigid PVC. UPVC doors are a preferred choice of architects and home owners due to the superior qualities they offer when compared to other door materials like wood, metal , PVC etc

• Easy to clean and maintain – UPVC doors can be cleaned by simply wiping with a soft cloth soaked with mild detergents even though they may not peel or cracks after years of usage.
• UPVC Profiles are manufactured to accommodate double glass units (DGU) in fact provides excellent thermal and acoustic insulations. Furthermore glass panes can be substituted with reflective glass to reflect sunlight and keep the rooms cooler in summers.
• Durability – UPVC is a highly durable material, in addition to that allows for the construction of doors and windows that are long-lasting. In addition to all above they are dust-proof, termite-proof, moisture, and weather-resistant.
• Ease of installation – Similarly UPVC doors are very fast and easy to install.

#### Types of Door – Aluminium doors

Aluminium doors due to their excellent and durable qualities are the most preferred option for designers and architects. They are durable, strong and maintenance free material. The fabrication and installation is very easy and got the choice of using as member for DGU units for thermal insulation applications. Aluminium is expensive, however considering the superior qualities aluminium is preferred in most of the areas.

## Conclusion

Apart from the types described above there are a lot of doors varieties available in the market to cater each and every situation and applications. However, these door type selection has to be in line with the requirements.