Category Archives: CEMENT

Best Cement of India || Top Cement Companies in India -2021

Which are the best cement companies in India? Which is the best cement in India? This is the common question every individual should be asking while deciding to go for home construction.

Cement is the most significant and widely used construction material which forms an integral part of any structure. Cement is the major ingredient of concrete and mortar and the structural stability and life of a structure or building depends on the cement quality.

Significance of cement in construction sector

For big industrial, commercial, and residential constructions, the brand and type of cement is mentioned in the contract document in the approved vendor list section. But in the case of individuals involved in residential construction, the main guidance will be through the engineer or contractor involved in that works. But still, everyone should have a piece of basic knowledge regarding the type of cement available in the market and which one is best for their homes.

Which is the best cement for your House/Structure?

After China, India is the largest producer of cement with an overall cement production capacity of nearly 545 million tonnes (MT) in FY20 and accounted for over 8% of the global installed capacity as per IBEF.

A total of around 200-225 cement plants are there in India and lots are under various stages of construction. Around 40-45% of these cement plants are located in Rajasthan, Chattisgarh, Tamilnadu, Andra Pradesh.

This article is about the top 8, best cement companies in India. 

What is the difference between best cement company and best cement?

All cement companies manufacture cement according to the standards and there is nothing like the best cement or best brand. The major factor deciding the best cement company in India is the production, marketing, and distribution network the company owns in that particular region or the regional availability of that cement brand.

The choice of cement can be done according to the local availability and budget. We are listing out the top companies in terms of market share and availability in most of the places.

Top cement producers in India in terms of Market share

As per India Brand Equity Foundation (IFBL) Ultratech stand at first position in terms of market share and Market cap.

Best cement of India
Best cement of India
Best cement of India - Data with respect to market cap and Market share
Best cement of India – Data with respect to market cap and Market share

Let us go through the details of top cement companies in india in terms of market capitalization and market share

1.UltraTech – Best cement companies in India

Ultra Tech is the largest manufacturer of grey cement, white cement and Ready mix concrete in India and is the cement flag ship cement company of Aditya Birla Group. Established in year 1983 Ultra tech has UltraTech Cement has 23 integrated plants, 1 clinkerisation unit, 26 grinding units, 7 bulk terminals, 1 white cement plant, 2 Wall Care putty plants and more than 100+ RMC plants. Ultratech is the third-largest company in the world (Excluding china) and has business operations in UAE, Bahrain, Sri Lanka, and India. Ultra Tech has a consolidated capacity of 116.8 million tonnes per annum (MT PA) of grey cement.

Ultra Tech
Ultra Tech
  • Establishment: 1987
  • Headquarter: Mumbai
  • Market share : 31%
  • Market Cap (Rs Cr.) Rs. 191,604 Cr. (38.98%)
  • Production capacity : 116.8 MT PA

Ultratech production line includes Ordinary Portland Cement, Portland Blast Furnace Slag Cement, Portland Pozzolana Cement, etc. They are also leading producers of White Cement, Ready Mix Concrete, building products, etc.

2.Ambuja Cement – Best cement companies in India

Ambuja cement formerly known as (Gujrat Ambuja Cement Limited ) is the second-largest cement company in India in terms of the Market share. It was founded in 1983 and has their headquarter in Mumbai. Ambuja Cement got five integrated cement manufacturing plants and eight cement grinding units spanning across the country with a production capacity of 29.65 million tonnes per Annum (MT PA).

All Ambuja Cement plants are ISO 14001 certified. It is also plastic negative, by burning as much as over 75,000 tonnes of plastic waste in its kilns, equivalent to 2.5 times of total plastic used. The company also generated 7.1% of its power needs from renewable resources.

Ambuja Cement is known for its high strength, high performance Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Pozzolana Portland Cement (PPC) and was the first to introduce 53-grade cement in the market.

Ambuja Cement
Ambuja Cements
  • Establishment: 1983
  • Headquarter: Mumbai
  • Market share : 21%
  • Market Cap (Rs Cr.) Rs. 67770 Cr. (13.67%)
  • Production capacity : 29.65 MTPA

In 2005 – Ambuja Cements (as the company was known then) and another premier Indian cement company, ACC Limited, became a part of the reputed Holcim Group of Switzerland. Later, in 2015, Holcim Limited and Lafarge SA came together in a merger of equals to form LafargeHolcim – the new world leader in building materials.

3.ACC Cements – Best cement companies in India

It is formerly known as an Associate Cement Company is one of the oldest and leading manufacturers of cement and ready mix concrete. ACC Cement was established in the year 1936 with headquarter in Mumbai and having 17 cement manufacturing units, over 90 ready mix concrete plants etc.

ACC Cement
ACC Cement
  • Establishment: 1936
  • Headquarter: Mumbai
  • Market share : 12 %
  • Market Cap (Rs Cr.) Rs. 38081 Cr. (7.68%)
  • Production capacity : 33.4 MTPA

In 2005, ACC became part of the Holcim Group of Switzerland. Subsequently, in 2015, Holcim and Lafarge came together in a merger to form LafargeHolcim – the global leader in building materials and solutions.

4.Shree cements – Best cement companies in India

SCL is one of the fast growing cement companies in India. Shree Cement was Incorporated in 1979 by renowned Bangur family based out of Kolkata and first cement plant was established in the year 1985.

SCL is one of India’s Top five cement producers and among the fastest growing cement companies with an installed capacity of 40.4 Million Tonnes Per Annum in India and 44.4 MPTA including overseas.

Shree Cement
Shree Cement
  • Establishment: 1979
  • Headquarter: Kolkata
  • Market share : 10%
  • Market Cap (Rs Cr.) Rs. 101191 Cr. (20.41%)
  • Production capacity : 40.4 MTPA

Shree cement is known for delivery of good quality products at an affordable price range.

Dalmia cement

They are one of India’s pioneering homegrown cement companies established in 1939 having headquarter in Delhi. Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Ltd, which is a 100% subsidiary of Dalmia Bharat Ltd.

The company has a production capacity of 30.75 MP TA and operates thirteen cement plants and grinding units which are spread across nine states. Dalmia Cement is the only company with at least one plant in each of the four key eastern states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Odisha.

Dalmia Cement
Dalmia Cement
  • Establishment: 1939
  • Headquarter: Delhi
  • Market share : 8%
  • Market Cap (Rs Cr.) Rs. 33490 Cr. (6.76%)
  • Production capacity : 30.75 MTPA

Dalmia is the largest manufacturer of slag cement and is a leader in super-speciality cement for oil wells, railway sleepers, and airstrips. Dalmia brands are available as Portland Pozzolana Cement, Portland Slag Cement, Composite Cement, and Ordinary Portland Cement in select markets

Birla Corporation

Birla Corporation is a flagship company of MP Birla group and got 10 cement plants at various locations and having a production capacity of 15.5 MT PA. Incorporated as Birla Jute Manufacturing Company Limited in 1919 Birla corporation is engaged in the manufacture of cement. They manufacture varieties of cement like Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), 43 & 53 grades, Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), fly ash-based PPC, Low Alkali Portland Cement, Portland Slag Cement (PSC), Low Heat Cement and Sulfates Resistant Cement.

Birla Cement
Birla Cement
  • Establishment: 1919
  • Headquarter: kolkata
  • Market share : 5%
  • Market Cap (Rs Cr.) Rs.9087 Cr. (1.83%)
  • Production capacity : 15.5 MTPA

The company acquired 100% shares of Reliance Cement Company Private Limited for a value 4800 crores. The total capacity including acquisition stands at 15.5 MT PA.

India Cements

India cements Ltd was founded in the year 1946 by Shri S N N Sankaralinga Iyer and Sri T S Narayanaswami. From a two plant company having a capacity of just 1.3 million tonnes in 1989, India Cements has robustly grown in the last two decades to a total capacity of 15.5 million tonnes per annum. India Cements has now 8 integrated cement plants in Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan and two grinding units, one each in Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.

India Cements
India Cements
  • Establishment: 1946
  • Headquarter: Chennai
  • Market share : 5%
  • Market Cap (Rs Cr.) Rs. 6047Cr. (1.22%)
  • Production capacity : 15.5 MTPA

Ramco cements

Ramco Cements Limited is the flagship company of the Ramco Group, a well-known business group of South India. having their head quarters in Chennai. It is eight in the list of top 10 cement company in India

The main product of the company is Portland cement, manufactured in eight state-of-the-art production facilities that include Integrated Cement plants and Grinding units with a current total production capacity of 16.45 MTPA. The company is the fifth largest cement producer in the country. 

Ramco Cement
Ramco Cement
  • Establishment: 1946
  • Headquarter: Chennai
  • Market share : 4%
  • Market Cap (Rs Cr.) Rs.24089 Cr. (4.86%)
  • Production capacity : 16.45 MTPA


All cement companies are manufacturing the product as per International and Indian standards. While choosing the cement brand always go for the one readily available in the area of works. The companies mentioned in this article are the ones having high manufacturing capacity and a good marketing network. There a lot of good companies and brands available in the market other than the one mentioned in this article that has the same quality and durability and can be opted for without any second thought.

Cement tests – Laboratory tests and field tests

Cement tests are significant because cement is the most important and highly recognized binding material used in construction. Cement is an integral part of all types of construction ranging from huge skyscrapers, bridges, tunnels, etc to small residential buildings. For industrial structures like power plants, refineries, steel plants, cement plants, bridges, roads, etc. cement is the main component. Cement, when mixed with sand and aggregates, forms concrete and with sand makes mortar. The serviceability, strength, and durability of a structure are related to cement used in various works.

This article is about various tests conducted on cement to check its quality.

Cement tests – Categories

Cement is one of the oldest and most used binding materials and an integral ingredient used in the construction sector. The quality, serviceability, and stability of a structure are directly related to the quality of cement used in it. Hence it is required to analyse the quality of cement before using it for works. The tests for determining cement quality are split into two major categories.

Cement got physical as well as chemical properties. Normally lab tests are conducted to ascertain the properties of cement. Lab tests require time, special equipment, and professionals for testing and interpreting the results. It may not be possible to check all the properties of cement at the site. To overcome this difficulty cement tests are categorised into field tests and laboratory tests.

Cement tests

Field tests on Cement

The quality of cement is determined using some simple field tests. These tests do not require any sophisticated types of equipment and professional skills and get the results very quickly. By conducting these simple tests and analyzing the results we will get an idea about the cement quality and can immediately decide on accepting or rejecting it.
Following are the common field tests conducted to ensure the quality of cement.

These are first look tests and quality of cement is ensured by its smoothness to touch, the colour of cement, etc.

  • Checking manufacturing date
  • Visual checking of lumps
  • Feel test
  • Heat of cement
  • colour
  • Water float test
  • Setting test

These basic tests give an approximate characteristic of cement. These are easy and quick but not accurate, however help in concluding the acceptance of cement for works.

Also read : Field tests for cement

Laboratory tests for Cement

The laboratory tests are conducted to define the physical and chemical properties of cement. It is not possible to check all the cement properties at the site. The main laboratory tests conducted on cement is as follows.

  • Fineness Test
  • Compressive Strength Test
  • Consistency Test on cement
  • Setting time
  • Soundness Test
  • Tensile strength Test
  • Heat of hydration

Lab tests require time. But it provides accurate results.

Fineness test

The fineness test determines the size of the cement grains. Smaller the diameter of grains finer the cement is. Finer cement grains enhance the strength and cohesiveness of concrete.
The fineness of cement grains plays an important role in the hydration process and directly impacts the strength of concrete. Cement fineness is determined with the help of the following tests.

  • Sieve test
  • Blain’s air permeability test
  • Wagner turbidimeter method.

Blain’s air permeability test is the more reliable than sieve analysis test. The apparatus for this test is the permeability apparatus.

Finer cement grains above the permissible limits are also not preferred because excess finer grains increase the surface area. An increase in the surface area requires more water and results in the quick setting of cement. The standard guidelines for the Fineness test are IS 4031-PART1-1996, IS 4031(Part2)-1999, ASTM-204-05, ASTMC-115-96a (re-approved 2003).

Compressive Strength Test

The compressive strength of cement is the prime data to be determined before selecting the cement at the site. Concrete imparts strength to the structure and cement is the main ingredient in concrete. The apparatus for this test is a Compression testing machine. Gradual load is applied to the cement specimen. The load at which the specimen breaks and the area of the specimen define its strength. Certain factors like improper mixing, curing, proportioning, etc also affect the strength of cement. The cement with low compressive strength is not recommended in construction. The standard guidelines available for this test are IS4031 (Part 6)-1988, ASTM C 109, BS EN 196 – 1:2005.

Consistency test on cement

The consistency test is performed to determine the water necessary for attaining standard consistency or normal consistency. Water content is an important factor in making cement mortar. On mixing water with cement the chemical reaction or hydration is initiated. Excess water in cement results in an increase in the water-cement ratio. An increase in the water-cement ratio leads to a loss of strength when cement hardens. Less water content reduces the hydration process leads to loss of strength. Vicat apparatus is used to determine the consistency. The standard consistency of cement is when the Vicat plunger penetrates to a point 5 to 7 mm from the bottom of the Vicat mould. The consistency of cement ranges from 26% to 33%.

Vicats apparatus-Consistency test on cement
Vicats apparatus-Consistency test on cement

An increase in the amount of water content creates problems like bleeding, segregation in concrete. The standard guidelines about cement consistency are available in IS 4031 (Part 4)-1988, ASTM C 187, BS EN 196-3:2005, etc.

Setting time

Setting time is the time at which the cement hardens after gaining strength. It is necessary for the transportation, placing, and compaction of cement. The setting time of cement is measured at two stages – Initial and final. The time at which the setting begins is the initial setting time. At this stage, the cement loses its plasticity. The time at which the setting completes is the final setting time. This helps in the removal of scaffolding. We use the Vicat apparatus for determining setting time. The initial setting time of cement is 30 minutes and the final setting time is 600 minutes. The code which gives the guidelines about this test are IS 4031 (Part 5)-1988, ASTM C 191, BS EN 196-3:2005.

Soundness Test

A soundness test determines the capacity of cement to retain its volume after hardening. It also determines the additional lime present in the cement. Lime is one of the main ingredients of concrete. The deficiency of lime affects the setting time of cement. If the amount of lime is high, the cement will become unsound. Large expansion in the cement may produce cracks in concrete. Thus the disintegration, corrosion, and distortion occur in the concrete. So unsound cement should not be used in construction. This test can be done using the Le Chateler method and Autoclave method. The standard guidelines about this test are available in IS4031 (Part 3)-1988, ASTM C 151-09, BS EN 196-3: 2005.

Cement tests - Le Chatelier apparatus
Cement tests – Le Chatelier apparatus

Tensile strength Test

The tensile strength test is done using the Briquette test method or by the split tensile strength test. The tensile strength of cement is less compared to the compressive strength. Tensile cracking occurs due to dynamic loading and temperature variation. In this test, uni axial loading is done to determine the tensile strength. The standard guidelines for this test are available in ASTM C307 and EN 196-1.

Heat of Hydration

Hydration is an exothermic chemical reaction between cement and water involving the release of Heat. The hydration process increases the strength of cement. The heat of hydration is signified in terms of kilo joules per kilogram.
A calorimeter is an apparatus used for determining the hydration of cement. Important factors that influence the heat of hydration are the proportion of C3S and C3A, water-cement ratio, the curing temperature, fineness of cement, etc. An increase in heat of hydration produces undesirable stresses. The standard guidelines for this test are available in ASTM C 186 and IS4031 (Part 9 ) – 1988.


Tests on cement is the most essential activity to be included before starting any construction activity. The quality of cement determines the strength, serviceability, stability and life of a structure. Any compromise on quality can lead to serious construction defects and failures.

Manufacturing process of cement.


Cement is considered as the most significant substance used in construction which acts as a binder which can adheres the materials together. Cement is a hydraulic binder when mixed with water and sand transforms into mortar and when mixed with water and aggregates converts to concrete which can be used for a number of applications. As per World cement association concrete comes second only to water as the most used resource. China is the largest producer of cement with 53% and India follows with 8% with this production likely to be doubled in next ten years.

The basic raw materials used for cement manufacturing is lime stone or chalk and shale or clay. Cement clinkerisation plants are normally located near the raw materials areas and most of the the times the plants are equipped with conveyors which can directly feed the raw materials from the mines



Based on the technic adopted for mixing raw materials the manufacturing process is divided into wet process and dry process. Wet process is normally used now a days. But dry process is also gaining popularity due to their energy efficiency and when the ingredients are hard.


The wet process of cement manufacturing is divided into a number of stages

a) Raw material extraction

b) Grinding

c) Proportioning and mixing and preparing composition based on the raw material purity.

e) Preheating the composition

f) Burning the composition in a kiln to form clinkers

g) Clinker cooling with gypsum addition and grounding to fine powder.

h) Storing in silos and packing and loading for conveying.

The raw materials needed for cement manufacturing are

a) CALCAREOUS (i.e. chalk consists of limestone.)
b) ARGILLACEOUS (i.e. clay consists of silicates of alumina.)


Major raw material involved in the cement manufacturing process is limestone. Cement manufacturing plants are located near the limestone sources for easy access to the raw materials or else it turnout to be expensive to transport the materials from outside. The next major ingredient is clay which have to be located around 25-30 km within the plant premises to minimise the cost incurred in transportation.

Lime stone obtained from open cast mines are transported and feeded to a limestone crusher and clay is placed in a clay crushers. Other raw material like sand which controls the kiln temperature and iron ore etc can be transported or supplied from outside sources.


The raw materials calcareous (lime)  extracted are crushed to make a size of 6 inch and further crushed to make it 3 inch in secondary crushers. The argillaceous materials (clay) are washed to remove the organic contents and stored in basins and limestone is stored in silos.


The washed Clay and crushed lime stone are conveyed and mixed in desired proportion and further grinded in a wet grinding mill where both the materials are closely mixed in the presence of water to form a slurry .The slurry is stored in storage tanks where minor corrections in the compositions are carried out. The slurry which constitutes around 35-40% water is constantly kept in agitation to prevent the settling of limestone and clay.


The preheaters are used to heat the raw mix and drive off carbon dioxide and water before it is fed into the kiln.The raw meal passes down the preheater tower while hot gases rise up, heating the raw meal. At the entry point of kiln the raw meal largely decarbonates .


The decarbonated slurry is fed directly to an inclined steel cylinder which is called rotary kiln .In the rotary kiln through a series of reactions clinker is produced. The kiln is made of a steel casing lined with refractory bricks which have to withstand the reactions happening inside the kiln. The kiln is divided into three zones depending on the process happening in each zone and the temperature at each zone. The kiln is heated from the bottom using coal, oil or gases.

In the first zone water and moisture from the decarbonated slurry is evaporated at a temperature of 400C and the process is known as drying zone.

In the second part which is the calcination zone temperature is around 1000 degree and carbon dioxide is removed and is  immediately converted into flakes after loosing the moisture. These flakes or modules are taken into the third stage with the help of rotary movement of the kiln.

In the third stage which is called the burning zone or clinkering zone and the temperature their will be around 1300-1500 degree . In this zone the lime and clay reacts to produce calcium aluminates and calcium silicates. Immediately on entering the burning zone aluminates and calcium silicates get fused and  the modules are converted into a dark greenish balls and is called clinker. The size of the clinker ranges from 5 mm to 20 mm. These are the chemical reactions happening in the kiln.

2CaO + SiO2 = Ca2SiO(declaim silicate (C2S))

3CaO + SiO2 = Ca3SiO5 (tricalcium silicate (C3S))

3CaO + Al2O= Ca3Al2O6 (dicalcium aluminate (C2A))

4CaO + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 = Ca4Al2Fe2O10 (tetracalcium aluminoferrite(C4AF))


The cooled clinkers are finally grinded in ball mills. At this stage gypsum(2-4%) is added which functions to reduce the setting time of cement. The grinded powder is take to the cement silos for storage. The particle distribution is also done in a graded manner. The stored grinded powder is taken to the packing plant and packed for distribution




Cement – Ingredients and Properties


Cement is one of the most significant structural material used in construction. Cement is a binding agent that sets and hardens to adhere to building materials like sand,bricks,stone etc. Cement is a fine powder made of limestone,clay, bauxite and iron.

Cement when mixed with aggregates and sand produces concrete and when mixed with sand produces mortar which is used for brickwork, plaster,flooring etc. Cement is the most unavoidable element which dominates the construction sector.




Cement is manufactured from Lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide. Lime is obtained from limestone and oxides of silica, alumina and iron which is found in clay and shale.

a) Lime

Lime is the major and main constituent of cement and which accounts to about 60-65%. Lime is the main ingredient  for production of calcium silicates aluminates and responsible for the cementing properties and strength of cement. The proportion of lime content can alter the properties of cement. Less quantity of lime can reduce the strength of cement and higher lime content can make the cement unsound. Lime in correct proportions is responsible for the strength of cement.

lime stone

b) Silica

SiO2 or silicon dioxide is called silica. Silica is responsible for the formation of dicalcium silicate and tricalcium silicate in reaction with lime . Right proportions of silica plays a major part in inducing cement strength.

c) Alumina

Alumina is responsible for lowering the clinkering temperature and controlling the setting time of cement. Alumina imparts quick setting properties in cement and any increase in proportions can weaken the cement.

e) Iron oxide

Iron oxide is responsible for colour of the cement and it acts as a flux in the cement manufacturing process . It acts as a flux in high temperatures and combines with calcium and alumina to form tricalcium alumino ferrite which is the main ingredient behind the hardness of cement.

f) Magnesium oxide

Magnesium oxide is found in minor traces but increase in the quantity can reduce the strength of cement.

g) Sulphur Trioxide

Sulphur trioxide is available in traces but any increase can effect the cement quality.


Cement is the most significant structural material used in construction.Cement is the most recognised binding material and can be used in any nature of structures starting from a home to sky scrappers, industrial structures ,bridges, roads etc. Cement when mixed with sand and aggregates forms concrete and when mixed with sand makes mortar.The serviceability, strength and durability of a structure is purely depend on the quality of cement which is being used for concrete and mortar.The properties of cement is directly related to the proportioning of ingredients, grinding, packing etc.