Constructing a building is a very collaborative and intricate task where a lot of talented and expertised brains are involved, right? The first step is the building plan. In this blog, let’s look into how the design of building plan can be done in the best way by touching on all important aspects one by one. Hope you remembers the basics we learnt in the blog on basic of civil engineering.
Design requirements of a building plan
We are heading on to how to design a building plan by satisfying important requirements in the structural design.
1. Strength and Stability
Building should be capable of transferring the expected loads in its life period safely to the ground. Design of various structural components like slabs, beams, walls, columns and footing should ensure safety. None of the structural components should buckle, overturn and collapse.
2. Dimensional Stability
All structural components should be so designed that deflections do not exceed the permissible values specified in the codes.
3. Resistance to Dampness
Great care should be taken in planning and in the construction of the building to avoid dampness since it affects the lifespan of the building.
4. Resistance to Fire
Regarding achieving resistance to fire, the basic requirements laid down in the codes are:
(a) the structure should not ignite easily.
(b) building orientation should be such that spread of fire is slow.
(c) In case of fire, there should be means of easy access to vacate building quickly.
5. Heat Insulation
A building should be so oriented and designed that it insulates interior from heat.
6. Sound Insulation
Buildings should be planned against outdoor and indoor noises.
7. Protection from Termite
Buildings should be protected from termites.
Each and every component of the building should be durable.
9. Security against Burglary
This is the basic need the owner of the building expects.
10. Lighting and Ventilation
For healthy and happy living natural light and ventilation are required. Diffused light and good cross ventilation should be available inside the building.
11. Comforts and Conveniences
Various units in the building should be properly grouped and integrated keeping in mind the comfort and convenience of the user
Economy without sacrificing comfort, convenience and durability is another basic requirement of the building.
Okay. In nutshell, you should be incorporating major concepts of a green building.
So, the requirements in the design of building floor plan are taken care of. What’s the next important?
Yeah, the principles.
Principles of structural design of a building plan
There are 4 important principles. This principles reflect the features of a vastu home.
1. Building plan design for suitable orientation
Orientation means setting out the plan of the building with respect to north-south and east-west directions to provide an opportunity to user to enjoy sun-shine and breeze when required. And to avoid the same whenever not required.
2. Designing building plan for energy efficiency
If the orientation of the building is fulfilled, requirement of electric energy comes down.
Light should not be glaring but it should be uniformly distributed. Providing windows and ventilators of appropriate size at suitable positions contribute a lot for natural lighting.
Natural ventilation can be achieved by selecting and positioning of doors, windows and ventilators at suitable places. Always cross ventilations should be planned suitably.
(c) Heat Insulation
Thicker exterior walls provide insulation against heat. Proper ventilation also helps in achieving heat insulation. Sunshades provided to doors, windows, and ventilators help in achieving heat insulation. In factories and assembly halls height should be more to reduce the temperature inside the building
3. Structural design of building plan for suitable utility
Principles of the design plan of your structure for suitable utility are:
It refers to suitable proportioning of length, width and height of rooms in the
building to get maximum benefit from the minimum dimensions.
2. Furniture Requirements
In planning residential, office, laboratory, hospital buildings, positions of required furniture should be drawn and then room dimensions, positions of doors, windows, wardsities etc. planned. Availability of circulation area should be checked.
Grouping means disposition of various rooms in the building for the convenience of users and their utility. In residential buildings grouping is to achieve comfort, privacy and efficiency while in the case of other buildings it is to achieve economic service.
Circulation means the space to be provided for movement from room to room or floor to floor.
4. Building design plan for meeting other requirements
This principle includes the following major points.
1. Sanitary Convenience
Sanitary conveniences include provision of bathrooms, lavatories, urinals etc. These facilities should be located giving free access to all users. In these blocks, suitable slopes should be given to the floors to drain out water easily.
This aspect of planning means a room designed for a specific purpose should be possible to use for other purposes, if necessary such as a study room may be planned for using as a guest room.
Planning should take care of privacy of one room from other room in a building as well as some parts of a building from neighbouring buildings and from streets. It is ensured by proper grouping of rooms and by suitably providing doors, windows and ventilators
6. Resistance to Fire
It may be noted that concrete and masonry (stone or brick) have better resistance to fire while steel and wood have lesser resistance. Hence reduce use of steel in kitchen and bathrooms with electric heaters.
7. Sound Insulation
Noise pollution can be reduced by suitable planning of the building.
8. Security against Burglary
By providing thicker walls, using stronger doors and windows in outer walls, security against burgling is improved. Providing grills to windows and additional shutters to doors are some of the methods of improving security. Alarms fitted in walls, roofs also improve security of the buildings.
Economy without sacrificing comfort, conveniences and durability is another basic principle of planning a building.
10. Provision for Future Expansion
Building should be planned making suitable provision for future expansion.
So, we have seen all the important aspects of design of a building plan. Did you feel that they are in perfect agreement with concepts of vastu as I said?Anyway, where is an example for the design of residential building?
Relax. Here we go.
The figure shows a simple building plan of a one story building at a scale of 1: 100
Wrapping up, hope you had a good time reading this!
Let us know your feed backs in the comments.